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Measuring Status and Change in NAEP Inclusion Rates of Students with Disabilities

In March 2010, the National Assessment Governing Board—working with the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES)—adopted a new policy to maximize the participation of students with disabilities (SD) and/or are English learners (EL). Accommodations in the testing environment or administration procedures are available for SD and EL students. Some accommodations are actually built-in features—or Universal Design Elements--of the digitally based assessments that are available to all students. Other assessment accommodations are available upon request. Every jurisdiction decides what accommodations the students in that jurisdiction are eligible to receive.

Today, NCES continues to explore ways to ensure consistent, inclusive assessment and reporting on academic achievement across all jurisdictions and student populations.

Measuring Status and Change in NAEP Inclusion Rates of Students with Disabilities-Results 2007-2009 is part of a series of reports to develop a methodology for measuring state inclusion rates of SDs. The methodology takes into account the differing demographics and inclusion policies in each state. This study provides an update of that research and methodology using data from the 2009 NAEP assessments.

NAEP Measuring Inclusion Rates.
Inclusion Rates 2009

With the release of the 2009 NAEP reading and mathematics assessments, NCES measured the status and change in inclusion rates.

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Read about the methodology used in the 2009 report.

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Recent Inclusion, Exclusion and Accommodation Rates

Some students with disabilities (SD) and English learner (EL) students can be assessed without special procedures. Some require accommodations to participate in NAEP, while others may not be able to participate even with accommodation. The percentage of SD and EL students who are excluded from NAEP assessments varies both from one jurisdiction to another and within a jurisdiction over time. Download recent data on participation rates, inclusion rates, and other information about SD and EL.

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Percentages of Students with Disabilities

See the percentages of public school students in the nation and the states with disabilities who were identified and assessed by NAEP in mathematics and reading from 2005-2009.

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Historic Accommodation Type Data

Explore the percentage of accommodations used over the last 30 years. Download by subject to see the accommodation types used since 1998.

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Frequently Asked Questions

Have a question about inclusion studies? Check out the questions most frequently submitted, or download a PDF Click to open pdf. for printing.

About the Study

What is the purpose of this study?
Why was the study conducted?

The Data and Population Analyzed

What assessments were analyzed?
How is a student with a disability defined?
What population is analyzed in this study? Why are English learners not included?

The Inclusion of Students with Disabilities on NAEP

Why would a student not be included on NAEP?
Do state assessments and NAEP provide the same accommodations for students with disabilities?
What determines whether or not a student with a disability is included in NAEP?
What is a state’s “inclusion rate of students with disabilities?"
What is the target inclusion rate for a state? What should a state's inclusion rate be?

Factors Associated with a State's Inclusion Rate

Why might a state's inclusion rate of students with disabilities change?
Do differences in accommodation policies across states enter into the analysis?
What about differences across states in accommodation rates on NAEP?

Measuring the Change in Inclusion Rates and the Status of Inclusion Rates

How does the report measure a state's inclusiveness?
How do the nation-based and jurisdiction-based approaches differ?
Which approach is better, the nation-based or the jurisdiction-based approach?
What about changes over time in the identification rates of students with disabilities?
How does the "status" of a state's inclusion rate in an earlier year affect its status in a later year?
How is the "status" of inclusiveness calculated?
How is the status measure used?


What are "student-level" benchmarks?
What are "state-level" benchmarks?


How are standard errors calculated?
What explains why a state has a high or low change measure?
Are there any caveats in interpreting these findings?

Last updated 08 April 2024 (DS)