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Indicators

The Condition of Education At a Glance

Preprimary, Elementary, and Secondary Education
Characteristics of Children’s Families pdf file 2015 2016 Change
between
years
 
Highest level of education attained by parents of children under age 18        
Percentage whose parents' highest level of education was less than high school 10.5% 10.4%    
Percentage whose parents' highest level of education was a bachelor's or higher degree 39.0% 39.7%  
Percentage of children under age 18 living in mother-only households 27.0% 26.7%  
Percentage of children under age 18 in families living in poverty 20.3% 19.1%  
Children's Access to and Use of the Internet pdf file 2013 2015    
Percentage of children ages 3 to 18 who use the Internet from home        
3- and 4-year-olds 31% 39%  
5- to 10-year-olds 50% 54%  
11- to 14-year-olds 65% 65%    
15- to 18-year-olds 77% 76%    
Preschool and Kindergarten Enrollment pdf file 2015 2016    
Percentage of children enrolled in preprimary education        
3-year-olds 38% 42%    
4-year-olds 67% 66%    
5-year-olds 87% 86%    
Elementary and Secondary Enrollment pdf file Fall 2014 Fall 2015    
Number of students enrolled in public schools 50.31 million 50.44 million  
Prekindergarten through 8th grade 35.37 million 35.39 million  
9th through 12th grade 14.94 million 15.05 million  
Public Charter School Enrollment pdf file Fall 2014 Fall 2015    
Number of students enrolled in public charter schools 2.7 million 2.8 million  
Percentage of public school students enrolled in charter schools 5.4% 5.7%  
Number of public charter schools 6,750 6,860  
Percentage of public schools that are charter schools 6.9% 7.0%  
Private School Enrollment pdf file Fall 2013 Fall 2015    
Total number of students enrolled in private schools (prekindergarten through 12th grade) 5.4 million 5.8 million  
Prekindergarten through 8th grade 4.1 million 4.3 million  
9th through 12th grade 1.3 million 1.4 million  
Percentage of all students enrolled in private schools (prekindergarten through 12th grade) 9.7% 10.2%  
English Language Learners in Public Schools pdf file Fall 2014 Fall 2015    
Percentage of public school students who are English language learners 9.3% 9.5%  
Children and Youth With Disabilities pdf file 2014–15 2015–16    
Number of public school students ages 3–21 receiving special education services 6.6 million 6.7 million  
Percentage of public school students ages 3–21 receiving special education services 13.0% 13.2%  
Characteristics of Traditional Public Schools and Public Charter Schools pdf file 2014–15 2015–16    
Traditional public schools        
Total number of traditional public schools 91,430 91,420  
Percentage of traditional public schools        
With more than 50% White enrollment 59.0% 58.2%  
With more than 50% Black enrollment 9.0% 8.9%  
With more than 50% Hispanic enrollment 15.7% 16.0%  
Public charter schools        
Total number of public charter schools 6,750 6,860  
Percentage of public charter schools        
With more than 50% White enrollment 35.7% 34.4%  
With more than 50% Black enrollment 23.6% 23.4%  
With more than 50% Hispanic enrollment 23.9% 25.2%  
Concentration of Public School Students Eligible for
Free or Reduced-Price Lunch
 pdf file
2014–15 2015–16    
Percentage of students attending public low-poverty schools1 20.4% 19.7%  
Percentage of students attending public high-poverty schools1 24.3% 24.4%  
School Crime and Safety pdf file 2015 2016    
Nonfatal victimization rate per 1,000 students        
Victimization occurred at school 33 29    
Victimization occurred away from school 21 24    
Characteristics of Public School Teachers pdf file 1999–2000 2015–16    
Total number of public school teachers 3.0 million 3.8 million  
In elementary schools 1.6 million 1.9 million  
In secondary schools 1.4 million 1.9 million  
         
Percentage of public school teachers        
Who are female 75% 77%  
Who are male 25% 23%  
         
Who held a postbaccalaureate degree 47% 57%  
Who held a regular teaching certificate 87% 90%  
  2011–12 2015–16    
Annual base salary of public school teachers2 $56,590 $56,140    
Reading Performance pdf file 2015 2017    
Percentage of students who scored at or above Proficient3        
4th-grade students 36% 37%    
8th-grade students 34% 36%  
  2013 2015    
12th-grade students 38% 37%    
Mathematics Performance pdf file 2015 2017    
Percentage of students who scored at or above Proficient3        
4th-grade students 40% 40%    
8th-grade students 33% 34%    
  2013 2015    
12th-grade students 26% 25%    
Science Performance pdf file 2009 2015    
Percentage of students who scored at or above Proficient3        
4th-grade students 34% 38%  
12th-grade students 21% 22%    
  2011 2015    
8th-grade students 32% 34%    
Public High School Graduation Rates pdf file 2014–15 2015–16    
Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate (ACGR)4 83% 84%  
Status Dropout Rates 2015 2016    
Percentage of 16- to 24-year-olds not enrolled in school who have not completed high school 5.9% 6.1%    
Public School Revenue Sources2 pdf file 2013–14 2014–15    
Total revenues $644.1 billion $664.0 billion  
Federal sources $56.3 billion $56.4 billion  
State sources $298.1 billion $309.1 billion  
Local sources $289.7 billion $298.5 billion  
Public School Expenditures2 pdf file 2013–14 2014–15    
Total expenditures $645 billion $668 billion  
Current expenditures per student $11,429 $11,734  
         
Postsecondary Education
Immediate College Enrollment Rate pdf file 2015 2016 Change
between
years
 
Percentage of recent high school graduates enrolled in college 69% 70%    
2-year institutions 25% 24%    
4-year institutions 44% 46%    
College Enrollment Rates pdf file 2015 2016    
College participation rates for 18- to 24-year-olds        
Total, all students 40% 41%    
Male 38% 39%    
Female 43% 44%    
         
White 42% 42%    
Black 35% 36%    
Hispanic 37% 39%    
Asian 63% 58%    
Pacific Islander 24% 21%    
American Indian/Alaska Native 23% 19%    
Two or more races 38% 42%    
Undergraduate Enrollment pdf file Fall 2015 Fall 2016    
Total enrollment 17.0 million 16.9 million  
Full-time enrollment 10.6 million 10.4 million  
Part-time enrollment 6.4 million 6.4 million 5
Percentage enrolled in any distance education course 29% 31%  
Percentage enrolled exclusively in distance education 12% 13%  
Postbaccalaureate Enrollment pdf file Fall 2015 Fall 2016    
Total enrollment 2.9 million 3.0 million  
Full-time enrollment 1.7 million 1.7 million 5
Part-time enrollment 1.3 million 1.3 million 5
Percentage enrolled in any distance education course 34% 37%  
Percentage enrolled exclusively in distance education 26% 28%  
Characteristics of Postsecondary Students pdf file 2015–16 2016–17    
Total enrollment 20.0 million 19.8 million  
Undergraduate enrollment 17.0 million 16.9 million  
White 9.3 million 9.1 million  
Black 2.3 million 2.2 million  
Hispanic 3.0 million 3.2 million  
Asian 1.0 million 1.1 million  
Pacific Islander 49,500 47,100  
American Indian/Alaska Native 132,300 128,600  
Two or more races 592,200 595,700  
Nonresident alien 565,800 570,300  
         
Postbaccalaureate enrollment 2.9 million 3.0 million  
White 1.6 million 1.6 million  
Black 364,300 362,900  
Hispanic 242,600 259,600  
Asian 194,400 200,200  
Pacific Islander 6,000 6,100  
American Indian/Alaska Native 13,900 13,700  
Two or more races 67,400 70,700  
Nonresident alien 417,300 427,800  
Characteristics of Degree-Granting Postsecondary Institutions pdf file 2015-16 2016-17    
Total number of degree-granting institutions with first-year undergraduates 4,147 3,895  
Number of 4-year institutions with first-year undergraduates 2,584 2,395  
Number of 2-year institutions with first-year undergraduates 1,563 1,500  
Characteristics of Postsecondary Faculty pdf file Fall 2015 Fall 2016    
Number of full-time instructional faculty6 807,000 816,000  
Number of part-time instructional faculty 745,000 733,000  
Undergraduate Degree Fields pdf file 2014–15 2015–16    
Number of bachelor's degrees awarded        
Business 364,000 372,000  
Health professions and related programs 216,000 229,000  
Social sciences and history 167,000 161,000  
Graduate Degree Fields pdf file 2014–15 2015–16    
Number of master's degrees awarded        
Business 185,000 187,000  
Education 147,000 146,000  
Health professions and related programs 103,000 110,000  
Undergraduate Retention and Graduation Rates pdf file 2014–15 2015–16    
4-year institutions        
Retention rate of first-time undergraduates 80.7% 80.8%  
Graduation rate (within 6 years of starting program) of first-time, full-time undergraduates 59.4% 59.8%  
2-year institutions        
Retention rate of first-time undergraduates 61.3% 62.3%  
Graduation rate (within 3 years of starting program) of first-time, full-time undergraduates 29.0% 30.3%  
Postsecondary Certificates and Degrees Conferred pdf file 2014–15 2015-16    
Number of degrees/certificates conferred by postsecondary institutions        
Certificates below associate's degrees 961,000 939,000  
Associate's degrees 1,014,000 1,008,000  
Bachelor's degrees 1,895,000 1,921,000  
Master's degrees 759,000 786,000  
Doctor's degrees 179,000 178,000  
Price of Attending an Undergraduate Institution2 pdf file 2014–15 2015–16    
Average net price at 4-year institutions for first-time, full-time undergraduate students        
Public, in-state or in-district7 $13,300 $13,500  
Private nonprofit $25,900 $26,200  
Private for-profit $21,800 $22,300  
Loans for Undergraduate Students2 pdf file 2014–15 2015–16    
Average tuition and fees $11,780 $12,080  
Average student loan amount $7,100 $7,120  
Sources of Financial Aid pdf file 2014–15 2015–16    
Percentage of students receiving any financial aid at 4-year institutions 86% 85%  
Percentage of students receiving any financial aid at 2-year institutions 79% 78%  
Postsecondary Institution Revenues2 pdf file 2014–15 2015–16    
Revenue from tuition and fees per full-time-equivalent (FTE) student        
Public institutions $7,091 $7,380  
Private nonprofit institutions $21,125 $21,394  
Private for-profit institutions $15,357 $15,806  
Postsecondary Institution Expenses2 pdf file 2014–15 2015-16    
Instruction expenses per full-time-equivalent (FTE) student        
Public institutions $10,156 $10,422  
Private nonprofit institutions $17,690 $17,860  
Private for-profit institutions $4,265 $4,378  
         
Population Characteristics and Economic Outcomes
Educational Attainment of Young Adults pdf file 2016 2017 Change
between
years
 
Percentage of 25- to 29-year-olds with selected levels of educational attainment        
High school completion or higher 92% 92%    
Associate's or higher degree 46% 46%    
Bachelor's or higher degree 36% 36%    
Master's or higher degree 9% 9%    
Youth Neither Enrolled in School nor Working pdf file 2015 2016    
Percentage of 20- to 24-year-olds neither enrolled in school nor working        
Total 17% 17%    
With less than high school completion 41% 42%    
High school completion 28% 26%    
Some college, no bachelor's degree 9% 9%    
Bachelor's or higher degree 8% 8%    
Percentage of 16- to 65-year-olds with selected nondegree work credentials        
Had a certification 6%    
Had a license 18%    
Completed a work experience program 21%    
Annual Earnings of Young Adults pdf file 2015 2016    
Median annual earnings for 25- to 34-year-olds2        
Total $40,400 $40,000    
With less than high school completion $25,300 $25,400    
Who completed high school as highest level $30,900 $31,800    
Who completed some college but did not attain a degree $35,100 $34,900    
Who attained an associate's degree $37,400 $38,000    
Who attained a bachelor's or higher degree $54,500 $54,800    
Who attained a bachelor's degree $50,600 $50,000  
Who attained a master's or higher degree $60,800 $64,100    
Employment and Unemployment Rates by Educational Attainment pdf file 2016 2017    
Employment rates of 25- to 34-year-olds        
Total 77% 78%  
With less than high school completion 59% 57%    
Who completed high school as highest level 70% 72%    
Who attained a bachelor's or higher degree 86% 86%    
Unemployment rates of 25- to 34-year-olds        
Total 6% 5%  
With less than high school completion 13% 13%    
Who completed high school as highest level 9% 7%  
Who attained a bachelor's or higher degree 2% 3%    
         
International Comparisons        
International Comparisons: Reading Literacy at Grade 4 (2016) pdf file U.S. average score International average score Difference
between the
U.S. average
and the
international
average
 
Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS)        
Average reading literacy scores of 4th-grade students 549 500  
Average online informational reading score of 4th-grade students 557 500  
International Comparisons: U.S. 4th-, 8th-, and 12th-Graders’
Mathematics and Science Achievement (2015)
 pdf file
U.S. average score TIMSS scale centerpoint Difference
between the
U.S. average
and the
TIMSS scale
centerpoint
 
Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS)        
Mathematics scores of 4th-grade students 539 500  
Mathematics scores of 8th-grade students 518 500  
Science scores of 4th-grade students 546 500  
Science scores of 8th-grade students 530 500  
TIMSS Advanced        
Advanced Mathematics scores of 12th-grade students 485 500  
Physics Scores of 12th-grade students 437 500  
International Comparisons: Science, Reading, and
Mathematics Literacy of 15-Year-Old Students (2015)
 pdf file
U.S.
average
score
OECD
average
score
Difference between the
U.S. average and the
OECD average
 
Program for International Student Assessment (PISA)        
Science literacy scores of 15-year-old students 496 493    
Reading literacy scores of 15-year-old students 497 493    
Mathematics literacy scores of 15-year-old students 470 490  
Education Expenditures by Country (2014)8 pdf file US OECD Difference between
the U.S. and OECD
 
Expenditure per full-time-equivalent (FTE) student        
Elementary and secondary education $12,300 $9,600  
Postsecondary education $29,700 $16,400  
International Educational Attainment pdf file 2015 2016 Change
between
years
 
Percentage of the population 25 to 34 years old who completed high school        
United States 90.5% 91.5%  
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries 83.6% 84.1%  
Percentage of the population 25 to 34 years old who attained a postsecondary degree        
United States 46.5% 47.5%    
OECD countries 41.8% 43.1%  
LEGEND: ▲ = Higher, ▼ = Lower, Blank = Not measurably different
1 Low-poverty schools are defined as public schools where 25 percent or less of the students are eligible for free or reduced-price lunch (FRPL). A high-poverty school is defined as a public school where more than 75 percent of the students are eligible for FRPL.
2 Data are reported in constant 2016–17 dollars, based on the Consumer Price Index (CPI).
3 Proficient indicates demonstrated competency in challenging subject matter.
4 The Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate (ACGR) is the number of students who graduate in 4 years with a regular high school diploma divided by the number of students who form the adjusted cohort for the graduating class. From the beginning of 9th grade (or the earliest high school grade), students who enter that grade for the first time form a cohort that is "adjusted" by adding any students who subsequently transfer into the cohort and subtracting any students who subsequently transfer out, emigrate to another country, or die.
5 Data are measurably different, although they round to the same number.
6 Data are for full-time instructional faculty on 9-month contracts at degree-granting postsecondary institutions.
7 The average net price at public 4-year institutions uses the lower of in-district or in-state average net price.
8 Data are reported in constant 2016 dollars based on the OECD's National Consumer Price Index.
NOTE: All calculations within the At a Glance are based on unrounded numbers. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity.
SOURCE: The Condition of Education 2018.