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Indicators

The Condition of Education At a Glance

Preprimary, Elementary, and Secondary Education
Characteristics of Children’s Families pdf file 2017 2018 Change
between
years
 
Percentage of children under age 18 whose parents’ highest level of education was less than high school 9.7% 9.4%  
Percentage of children under age 18 whose parents’ highest level of education was a bachelor’s or higher degree 41.0% 41.8%  
Percentage of children under age 18 living in mother-only households 26.3% 26.4%    
Percentage of children under age 18 in families living in poverty 18.0% 17.5%  
Children’s Internet Access at Home  pdf file 2016 2018    
Percentage of 3- to 18-years-olds who had home internet access 92% 94%  
Percentage of 3- to 18-years-olds who had home internet access only through smartphone 5% 6%  
Preschool and Kindergarten Enrollment pdf file 2017 2018    
Percentage of 3- to 5-year-olds enrolled in preprimary education        
3-year-olds 40% 40%    
4-year-olds 68% 68%    
5-year-olds 86% 84%    
Public School Enrollment pdf file Fall 2016 Fall 2017    
Number of students enrolled in public schools 50.62 million 50.69 million  
Prekindergarten through 8th grade 35.48 million 35.50 million  
9th through 12th grade 15.14 million 15.19 million  
Public Charter School Enrollment pdf file Fall 2016 Fall 2017    
Number of students enrolled in public charter schools 3.0 million 3.1 million  
Percentage of public school students enrolled in charter schools 6.0% 6.2%  
Number of public charter schools 7,010 7,190  
Percentage of public schools that are charter schools 7.1% 7.3%  
Private School Enrollment pdf file Fall 2015 Fall 2017    
Number of students enrolled in private schools 5.8 million 5.7 million    
Percentage of all students enrolled in private schools 10.2% 10.1%  
Racial/Ethnic Enrollment in Public Schools pdf file Fall 2016 Fall 2017    
Percentage of public school students        
White 48.23% 47.60%  
Black 15.34% 15.21%  
Hispanic 26.33% 26.77%  
Asian/Pacific Islander 5.44% 5.57%  
American Indian/Alaska Native 1.01% 0.98%  
Two or more races 3.64% 3.86%  
English Language Learners in Public Schools pdf file Fall 2016 Fall 2017    
Percentage of public school students who were English language learners 9.9% 10.1%  
Students With Disabilities pdf file 2017-18 2018-19    
Number of public school students ages 3–21 receiving special education services 7.0 million 7.1 million  
Percentage of public school students ages 3–21 receiving special education services 13.7% 14.1%  
Characteristics of Elementary and Secondary Schools pdf file 2016-17 2017-18    
Total number of traditional public schools 91,150 91,280  
Total number of public charter schools 7,010 7,190  
  Fall 2015 Fall 2017    
Total number of private schools 34,580 32,460    
Concentration of Public School Students Eligible for Free or Reduced-Price Lunch pdf file 2016-17 2017-18    
Percentage of students attending public low-poverty schools1 21.2% 21.0%  
Percentage of students attending public high-poverty schools1 24.2% 24.8%  
School Crime and Safety pdf file 2017 2018    
Nonfatal victimization rate per 1,000 students        
Victimization occurred at school 33 33    
Victimization occurred away from school 20 16    
Characteristics of Public School Teachers pdf file 1999–2000 2017–18    
Total number of public school teachers 3.0 million 3.5 million  
In elementary schools 1.6 million 1.8 million  
In secondary schools 1.4 million 1.8 million  
         
Percentage of public school teachers        
Who are female 75% 76%  
Who are male 25% 24%  
         
Who held a postbaccalaureate degree 47% 58%  
Who held a regular teaching certificate 87% 90%  
  2011–12 2017–18    
Annual base salary of public school teachers2 $59,060 $59,150    
Characteristics of Public School Principals  pdf file 2015–16 2017–18    
Total number of public school principals 90,400 90,900    
In elementary schools 62,100 62,000    
In secondary schools 20,300 20,200    
Percentage of public school principals        
Who are male 46% 46%    
Who are female 54% 54%    
         
Annual base salary of public school principals2 $101,740 $100,340  
Reading Performance pdf file 2017 2019    
Percentage of students who scored at or above NAEP Proficient3        
4th-grade students 37% 35%  
8th-grade students 36% 34%  
  2013 2015    
12th-grade students 38% 37%    
Mathematics Performance pdf file 2017 2019    
Percentage of students who scored at or above NAEP Proficient3        
4th-grade students 40% 41%    
12th-grade students 34% 34%    
  2013 2015    
8th-grade students 26% 25%    
Science Performance pdf file 2009 2015    
Percentage of students who scored at or above NAEP Proficient3        
4th-grade students 34% 38%  
12th-grade students 21% 22%    
  2011 2015    
8th-grade students 32% 34%    
Public High School Graduation Rates pdf file 2016-17 2017-18    
Adjusted cohort graduation rate (ACGR)4 84.6% 85.3%  
Status Dropout Rates pdf file 2017 2018    
Percentage of 16- to 24-year-olds not enrolled in school who had not completed high school 5.4% 5.3%    
Male 6.4% 6.2%    
Female 4.4% 4.4%    
         
White 4.3% 4.2%    
Black 6.5% 6.4%    
Hispanic 8.2% 8.0%    
Asian 2.1% 1.9%    
Pacific Islander 3.9% 8.1%  
American Indian/ Alaska Native 10.1% 9.5%    
Two or more races 4.5% 5.2%    
Public School Revenue Sources 2 pdf file 2015-16 2016-17    
Total $719.8 billion $736.1 billion  
Federal $59.5 billion $59.8 billion  
State $337.7 billion $345.8 billion  
Local $322.7 billion $330.5 billion  
Public School Expenditures2 pdf file 2015-16 2016-17    
Total $720.2 billion $738.5 billion  
Total expenditures per pupil (in fall enrollment) $14,136 $14,439  
         
Postsecondary Education
Immediate College Enrollment Rate pdf file 2017 2018 Change
between
years
 
Immediate college enrollment rate of high school completers 67% 69%    
2-year institutions 23% 26%    
4-year institutions 44% 44%    
College Enrollment Rates pdf file 2017 2018    
College enrollment rates of 18- to 24-year-olds        
Total, all students 40% 41%    
Male 37% 38%    
Female 44% 44%    
         
White 41% 42%    
Black 36% 37%    
Hispanic 36% 36%    
Asian 65% 59%    
Pacific Islander 33% 24%    
American Indian/Alaska Native 20% 24%    
Two or more races 41% 44%    
Undergraduate Enrollment pdf file Fall 2017 Fall 2018    
Total enrollment 16.77 million 16.61 million  
Full-time enrollment 10.37 million 10.27 million  
Part-time enrollment 6.40 million 6.34 million  
Percentage enrolled in any distance education course 33% 34%  
Percentage enrolled exclusively in distance education 13% 14%  
Postbaccalaureate Enrollment pdf file Fall 2017 Fall 2018    
Total enrollment 3.01 million 3.04 million  
Full-time enrollment 1.70 million 1.72 million  
Part-time enrollment 1.30 million 1.31 million  
Percentage enrolled in any distance education course 38% 40%  
Percentage enrolled exclusively in distance education 29% 31%  
Characteristics of Postsecondary Students pdf file Fall 2017 Fall 2018    
Total enrollment 19.77 million 19.65 million  
Undergraduate 16.76 million 16.61 million  
White 8.88 million 8.66 million  
Black 2.18 million 2.13 million  
Hispanic 3.27 million 3.35 million  
Asian 1.07 million 1.09 million  
Pacific Islander 46,100 44,700  
American Indian/Alaska Native 124,000 120,200  
Two or more races 623,400 646,500  
Nonresident alien 575,000 566,600  
         
Postbaccalaureate enrollment 3.01 million 3.04 million  
White 1.63 million 1.64 million  
Black 365,400 365,400  
Hispanic 275,000 292,400  
Asian 208,900 215,000  
Pacific Islander 5,900 5,800  
American Indian/Alaska Native 13,600 13,600  
Two or more races 76,800 81,300  
Nonresident alien 425,700 425,400  
Characteristics of Degree-Granting Postsecondary Institutions pdf file 2017-18 2018-19    
Total number of degree-granting institutions with first-year undergraduates 3,883 3,652  
Number of 4-year institutions with first-year undergraduates 2,407 2,323  
Number of 2-year institutions with first-year undergraduates 1,476 1,329  
Characteristics of Postsecondary Faculty pdf file Fall 2017 Fall 2018    
Number of full-time instructional faculty5 823,000 832,000  
Number of part-time instructional faculty 723,000 710,000  
Undergraduate Degree Fields pdf file 2016-17 2017-18    
Number of bachelor’s degrees conferred (top three bachelor’s programs)        
Business 381,100 386,200  
Health professions and related programs 238,000 244,900  
Social sciences and history 159,100 160,000  
Graduate Degree Fields pdf file 2016-17 2017-18    
Number of master’s degrees conferred (top three master’s programs)        
Business 187,400 192,200  
Education 145,600 146,400  
Health professions and related programs 119,200 125,200  
Undergraduate Retention and Graduation Rates pdf file 2016-17 2017-18    
4-year institutions        
Retention rate of first-time undergraduates 81.0% 81.0%  
Graduation rate (within 6 years of starting program) of first-time, full-time undergraduates 60.4% 62.4%  
2-year institutions        
Retention rate of first-time undergraduates 62.4% 62.3%  
Graduation rate (within 150% of normal time for degree completion) of first-time, full-time undergraduates 31.6% 32.6%  
Postsecondary Certificates and Degrees Conferred pdf file 2016-17 2017-18    
Number of degrees/certificates conferred by postsecondary institutions        
Certificates below associate’s degrees 946,000 955,000  
Associate’s degrees 1,006,000 1,011,000  
Bachelor’s degrees 1,956,000 1,981,000  
Master’s degrees 805,000 820,000  
Doctor’s degrees 181,000 184,000  
Price of Attending an Undergraduate Institution2 pdf file 2016-17 2017-18    
Average net price at 4-year institutions for first-time, full-time undergraduate students        
Public, in-state or in-district6 $14,000 $13,700  
Private nonprofit $27,300 $27,000  
Private for-profit $22,300 $22,100  
Loans for Undergraduate Students pdf file 2016-17 2017-18    
Percentage of undergraduates with student loans 46.1% 44.4%  
Average student loan amount2 $7,390 $7,230  
Sources of Financial Aid pdf file 2016-17 2017-18    
Percentage of students receiving any financial aid at 4-year institutions 85.0% 85.7%  
Percentage of students receiving any financial aid at 2-year institutions 77.8% 78.1%  
Postsecondary Institution Revenues2 pdf file 2016-17 2017-18    
Revenue from tuition and fees per full-time-equivalent (FTE) student        
Public institutions $7,660 $7,690  
Private nonprofit institutions $22,330 $22,350  
Private for-profit institutions $16,810 $16,820  
Postsecondary Institution Expenses2 pdf file 2016-17 2017-18    
Instruction expenses per full-time-equivalent (FTE) student        
Public institutions $11,040 $10,870  
Private nonprofit institutions $18,770 $18,710  
Private for-profit institutions $4,570 $4,490  
         
Population Characteristics and Economic Outcomes
Educational Attainment of Young Adults pdf file 2018 2019 Change
between
years
 
Percentage of 25- to 29-year-olds with selected levels of educational attainment        
High school completion or higher 93% 94%    
Associate’s or higher degree 47% 49%  
Bachelor’s or higher degree 37% 39%    
Master’s or higher degree 9% 9%    
Young Adults Neither Enrolled in School Nor Working pdf file 2017 2018    
Percentage of 18- to 24-year-olds who were neither enrolled in school nor working        
Total 18- to 24-year-olds 13.9% 13.5%  
18- and 19-year-olds 10.8% 10.8%    
20- to 24-year-olds 15.1% 14.5%  
         
White 11.3% 11.0%    
Black 21.6% 21.0%    
Hispanic 16.1% 15.5%  
Asian 7.4% 6.9%    
Pacific Islander 19.8% 20.8%    
American Indian/Alaska Native 29.2% 28.7%    
Two or more races 14.4% 14.0%    
Annual Earnings pdf file 2017 2018    
Median annual earnings for 25- to 34-year-olds2        
Total $42,900 $44,900    
With less than high school completion $26,600 $27,900    
Who completed high school as highest level $32,800 $34,900  
Who completed some college but did not attain a degree $35,900 $36,300    
Who attained an associate’s degree $39,800 $40,000    
Who attained a bachelor’s or higher degree $56,300 $57,900    
Who attained a bachelor’s degree $53,000 $54,700    
Who attained a master’s or higher degree $66,600 $65,000    
Employment and Unemployment Rates by Educational Attainment pdf file 2018 2019    
Employment rates of 25- to 34-year-olds        
Total 79% 79%    
With less than high school completion 59% 57%    
Who completed high school as highest level 72% 74%    
Who attained a bachelor’s or higher degree 86% 87%    
Unemployment rates of 25- to 34-year-olds        
Total 4% 4%    
With less than high school completion 9% 10%    
Who completed high school as highest level 6% 6%    
Who attained a bachelor’s or higher degree 2% 2%    
         
International Comparisons        
International Comparisons: Reading Literacy at Grade 4 (2016) pdf file U.S. average score International average score Difference
between the
U.S. average
and the
international
average
 
Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS)        
Average reading literacy scores of 4th-grade students 549 500  
Average online informational reading score of 4th-grade students 557 500  
International Comparisons: U.S. 4th-, 8th-, and 12th-Graders’
Mathematics and Science Achievement (2015)
 pdf file
U.S. average score TIMSS scale centerpoint Difference
between the
U.S. average
and the
TIMSS scale
centerpoint
 
Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS)        
Mathematics scores of 4th-grade students 539 500  
Mathematics scores of 8th-grade students 518 500  
Science scores of 4th-grade students 546 500  
Science scores of 8th-grade students 530 500  
TIMSS Advanced        
Advanced mathematics scores of 12th-grade students 485 500  
Physics scores of 12th-grade students 437 500  
International Comparisons: Reading, Mathematics, and
Science Literacy of 15-Year-Old Students (2018)
 pdf file
U.S.
average
score
OECD
average
score
Difference between the
U.S. average and the
OECD average
 
Program for International Student Assessment (PISA)        
Reading literacy scores of 15-year-old students 505 487  
Mathematics literacy scores of 15-year-old students 478 489  
Science literacy scores of 15-year-old students 502 489  
Enrollment Rates by Country pdf file 2016 2017    
Percentage of 3- and 4-year-olds enrolled in school at any level        
United States 52.7% 53.8%  
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries 80.4% 82.8%  
Percentage of 5- to 14-year-olds enrolled in school at any level        
United States 99.2% 99.8%  
OECD countries 97.9% 98.1%  
Percentage of 15- to 19-year-olds enrolled in school at any level        
United States 82.5% 82.9%  
OECD countries 84.9% 84.5%  
Percentage of 20- to 29-year-olds enrolled in school at any level        
United States 24.5% 24.6%  
OECD countries 28.6% 28.2%  
International Educational Attainment pdf file 2017 2018    
Percentage of the population 25 to 34 years old who completed high school        
United States 92.1% 92.4%    
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries 84.4% 84.7%  
Percentage of the population 25 to 34 years old who attained a postsecondary degree        
United States 47.8% 49.4%  
OECD countries 43.7% 44.5%  
Education Expenditures by Country (2016)7 pdf file U.S. OECD Difference between
the U.S. and OECD
 
Expenditure per full-time-equivalent (FTE) student        
Elementary and secondary education $13,600 $9,800  
Postsecondary education $31,600 $16,200  
LEGEND: ▲ = Higher, ▼ = Lower, Blank = Not measurably different
1 Low-poverty schools are defined as public schools where 25 percent or less of the students are eligible for free or reduced-price lunch (FRPL). High-poverty schools are defined as public schools where more than 75 percent of the students are eligible for FRPL.
2 Data are reported in constant 2018–19 dollars, based on the Consumer Price Index (CPI).
3 NAEP Proficient demonstrates solid academic performance and competency over challenging subject matter.
4 The adjusted cohort graduation rate (ACGR) is the number of students who graduate in 4 years with a regular high school diploma divided by the number of students who form the adjusted cohort for the graduating class. From the beginning of 9th grade (or the earliest high school grade), students who enter that grade for the first time form a cohort that is “adjusted” by adding any students who subsequently transfer into the cohort and subtracting any students who subsequently transfer out, emigrate to another country, or die.
5 Data are for full-time instructional faculty on 9-month contracts at degree-granting postsecondary institutions.
6 The average net price at public 4-year institutions uses the lower of in-district or in-state average net price.
7 Data are reported in constant 2018 dollars based on the OECD’s National Consumer Price Index.
NOTE: All calculations within the At a Glance are based on unrounded numbers. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity.
SOURCE: The Condition of Education 2020.