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Indicator 3: Children's Living Arrangements
(Last Updated: July 2017)

In 2014, a higher percentage of Asian children (82 percent) lived with married parents than the percentage of White children (73 percent), Pacific Islander children (65 percent), Hispanic children and children of Two of more races (56 percent each), American Indian/Alaska Native children (43 percent), and Black children (33 percent) who lived with married parents.

In 2014, approximately 73.5 million children under age 18 lived in the United States. The living arrangements of these children varied:1 63 percent lived with married parents, 27 percent lived with a female parent with no spouse present, 8 percent lived with a male parent with no spouse present, and 2 percent lived in other arrangements.2 Additionally, children's living arrangements varied across racial/ethnic groups. This indicator examines these variations.


Figure 3.1. Percentage distribution of children under age 18, by race/ethnicity and living arrangement: 2014

Figure 3.1. Percentage distribution of children under age 18, by race/ethnicity and living arrangement: 2014


1 Includes foster children, children in unrelated subfamilies, children living in group quarters, and children who were reported as the householder or spouse of the householder.
NOTE: Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau, American Community Survey (ACS), 2014. See Digest of Education Statistics 2015, table 102.20.


In 2014, across racial/ethnic groups, the majority of children under age 18 lived with married parents, with the exception of Black and American Indian/Alaska Native children. A higher percentage of Asian children (82 percent) lived with married parents than the percentage of White children (73 percent), Pacific Islander children (65 percent), Hispanic children and children of Two of more races (56 percent each), American Indian/Alaska Native children (43 percent), and Black children (33 percent) who lived with married parents. The percentage of children living with a female parent with no spouse present was highest for Black children (57 percent), followed by children who were American Indian/Alaska Native (39 percent), of Two or more races (34 percent), Hispanic (32 percent), Pacific Islander (25 percent), White (18 percent), and Asian (12 percent). All differences among these groups were statistically significant. The percentage of children living with a male parent with no spouse present was higher for American Indian/Alaska Native children (14 percent) than the percentages of children of all other racial/ethnic groups; conversely, the percentage of Asian children living with a male parent with no spouse present (5 percent) was lower than the percentages of children of all other racial/ethnic groups.


Figure 3.2. Percentage distribution of Hispanic children under age 18, by subgroup and living arrangement: 2014

Figure 3.2. Percentage distribution of Hispanic children under age 18, by subgroup and living arrangement: 2014


1 Includes Costa Rican, Guatemalan, Honduran, Nicaraguan, Panamanian, Salvadoran, and other Central American subgroups.
2 Includes Chilean, Colombian, Ecuadorian, Peruvian, Venezuelan, and other South American subgroups.
3 Includes other Hispanic subgroups not separately shown.
4 Includes foster children, children in unrelated subfamilies, children living in group quarters, and children who were reported as the householder or spouse of the householder.
NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau, American Community Survey (ACS), 2014. See Digest of Education Statistics 2015, table 102.20.


Among Hispanic children under age 18 in 2014, about 56 percent lived with married parents, 32 percent lived with a female parent with no spouse present, 10 percent lived with a male parent with no spouse present, and 2 percent lived in other arrangements. However, these percentages varied across Hispanic subgroups. The percentages of children living with married parents were below the Hispanic average of 56 percent for the following subgroups: Dominican (41 percent), Puerto Rican (42 percent), and Central American3 (53 percent). In contrast, the percentages of Mexican (58 percent), Cuban (63 percent), Spaniard (66 percent), and South American children4 (67 percent) living with married parents were higher than the Hispanic average. The percentages of children living with a female parent with no spouse present were below the Hispanic average of 32 percent for the following subgroups: South Americans (24 percent), Spaniards (25 percent), Cubans (28 percent), and Mexicans (30 percent). The percentages of Puerto Rican (47 percent) and Dominican (48 percent) children living with a female parent with no spouse present were above the Hispanic average.


Figure 3.3. Percentage distribution of Asian children under age 18, by subgroup and living arrangement: 2014

Figure 3.3. Percentage distribution of Asian children under age 18, by subgroup and living arrangement: 2014


! Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent.
1 Includes Taiwanese.
2 Includes Asian Indian, Bangladeshi, Bhutanese, Nepalese, Pakistani, and other South Asian subgroups.
3 Includes Burmese, Cambodian, Hmong, Laotian, Thai, Vietnamese, and Other Southeast Asian subgroups.
4 Includes other Asian subgroups not separately shown.
5 Includes foster children, children in unrelated subfamilies, children living in group quarters, and children who were reported as the householder or spouse of the householder.
NOTE: Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau, American Community Survey (ACS), 2014. See Digest of Education Statistics 2015, table 102.20.


Living arrangements for Asian children also varied across Asian subgroups. Overall, about 82 percent of Asian children under age 18 lived with married parents, 12 percent lived with a female parent with no spouse present, 5 percent lived with a male parent with no spouse present, and 1 percent lived in other arrangements in 2014. The percentages of Asian children living with married parents were below the Asian average of 82 percent for Southeast Asian5 (70 percent) and Filipino children (76 percent). In contrast, the percentages of Korean (87 percent) and South Asian6 (92 percent) children living with married parents were higher than the Asian average. The percentages of Asian children living with a female parent with no spouse present were below the Asian average of 12 percent for South Asian (5 percent) and Korean (8 percent) children. In contrast, the percentages of Filipino (17 percent) and Southeast Asian (19 percent) children living with a female parent with no spouse present were above the Asian average.

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1 Includes all children who live either with their parent(s) or with a householder to whom they are related by birth, marriage, or adoption (except a child who is the spouse of the householder). Children are classified by their parents' marital status or, if no parents are present in the household, by the marital status of the householder who is related to the children. Living arrangements with only a "female parent" or "male parent" are those in which the parent or the householder who is related to the child does not have a spouse living in the household. The householder is the person (or one of the people) who owns or rents (maintains) the housing unit.
2 Includes foster children, children in unrelated subfamilies, children living in group quarters, and children who were reported as the householder or spouse of the householder.
3 Includes Costa Rican, Guatemalan, Honduran, Nicaraguan, Panamanian, Salvadoran, and other Central American subgroups.
4 Includes Chilean, Colombian, Ecuadorian, Peruvian, Venezuelan, and other South American subgroups.
5 Includes Burmese, Cambodian, Hmong, Laotian, Thai, Vietnamese, and Other Southeast Asian subgroups.
6 Includes Asian Indian, Bangladeshi, Bhutanese, Nepalese, Pakistani, and other South Asian subgroups.