## Mathematics for Grades 4 and 8: Averages

Table 1. Average mathematics scores of 4th-grade students, by education system: 2015
Education system Average score s.e.

Average score is higher than U.S. average score at the .05 level of statistical significance.

Average score is lower than U.S. average score at the .05 level of statistical significance.

1 National Defined Population covers 90 to 95 percent of the National Target Population.

2 Met guidelines for sample participation rates only after replacement schools were included.

3 Nearly satisfied guidelines for sample participation rates after replacement schools were included.

4 The number in parentheses indicates years of school not grade in schooling.

5 National Defined Population covers less than 90 percent of the National Target Population (but at least 77 percent).

6 National Target Population does not include all of the International Target Population.

7 Reservations about reliability because the percentage of students with achievement too low for estimation exceeds 15 percent but does not exceed 25 percent.

8 Did not satisfy guidelines for sample participation rates.

NOTE: Education systems are ordered by average score. Education systems that are not countries are designated by the appended three-letter international abbreviation for their country. Participants that did not administer TIMSS at the target grade are not shown; see the international report for their results. U.S. state data are based on public school students only. The TIMSS scale centerpoint is set at 500 points and represents the mean of the overall achievement distribution in 1995. The TIMSS scale is the same in each administration; thus, a value of 500 in 2015 equals 500 in 1995. Standard error is abbreviated as s.e. For TIMSS 2015, Norway revised its assessed population to students in their 5th and 9th years of schooling to obtain better comparisons with Sweden and Finland. However, in previous TIMSS cycles Norway assessed students in their 4th and 8th years of schooling, which were defined as 4th and 8th grades but have been redefined as 3rd and 7th grades because year 1 in Norway is now considered the equivalent of a year of kindergarten. To maintain trend with previous TIMSS cycles, in 2015 Norway also collected data from students in their 4th and 8th years of schooling, which is used in trend tables.

SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), 2015.

TIMSS scale centerpoint 500 0.0
Singapore1 618 3.8
Hong Kong-CHN2 615 2.9
Korea, Rep. of 608 2.2
Chinese Taipei-CHN 597 1.9
Japan 593 2.0
Northern Ireland-GBR3 570 2.9
Russian Federation 564 3.4
Norway (5)4 549 2.5
Ireland 547 2.1
England-GBR 546 2.8
Belgium (Flemish)-BEL2 546 2.1
Kazakhstan 544 4.5
Portugal1 541 2.2
United States1, 2 539 2.3
Denmark1, 2 539 2.7
Lithuania1 535 2.5
Finland 535 2.0
Poland 535 2.1
Netherlands2 530 1.7
Hungary 529 3.2
Czech Republic 528 2.2
Bulgaria 524 5.3
Cyprus 523 2.7
Germany 522 2.0
Slovenia 520 1.9
Sweden1 519 2.8
Serbia5 518 3.5
Australia 517 3.1
Canada 1, 2, 6 511 2.3
Italy1 507 2.6
Spain1 505 2.5
Croatia 502 1.8
Slovak Republic 498 2.5
New Zealand 491 2.3
France 488 2.9
Turkey 483 3.1
Georgia6 463 3.6
Chile 459 2.4
United Arab Emirates 452 2.4
Bahrain1 451 1.6
Qatar 439 3.4
Iran, Islamic Rep. of 431 3.2
Oman 425 2.5
Indonesia 397 3.7
Jordan 388 3.1
Saudi Arabia7 383 4.1
Morocco 377 3.4
Kuwait7 353 4.6
Benchmarking participants
Florida-USA6 546 4.7
Quebec-CAN8 536 4.0
Ontario-CAN 512 2.3
Dubai-UAE 511 1.4
Buenos Aires-ARG 432 2.9
Abu Dhabi-UAE1, 7 419 4.7