- What can I do here?
- Compare the performance of U.S. adults with adults in other participating countries, or with incarcerated adults in U.S. federal, state, and private prisons.
- Print results from your browser or save results in spreadsheets by clicking the Excel icon.
- Click on the "Make Selections" button to access the left sidebar.
- Select from the "Select Sample" menu at the top of the left sidebar.
- Click on the menu "thumbtack" if you want to pin the left sidebar open.
- Select the variable in which you are interested.
- Display results for any of the PIAAC domains (literacy, numeracy, or problem solving) as either (a) average scores or (b) as the percentage of adults at various proficiency levels.
While statistically significant differences (set at a statistical significance level of 0.05) will be noted in some figures and tables, not all possible comparisons have been tested for significance. Learn more about the PIAAC Results Portal.
* Significantly different (p < .05) from the United States prison population.
‡ Reporting standards not met.
† Not applicable.
— Not available. International average estimate could not be computed because reporting standard was not met for all countries/jurisdictions.
# Rounds to zero.
¹ PIAAC international average calculated from 2012 international data for all countries shown on this website except for the United States for which the combined 2012 and 2014 data were used. PIAAC international average shown may differ slightly from the PIAAC international average published in the PIAAC First Look. For an explanation, see the section 'How Does this First Look Report Differ from the 2012 PIAAC First Look?' in NCES 2016-039, the 2012/2014 First Look.
² Response rate below 85%. Missing data have not been explicitly accounted for.
Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.
NOTE: The unemployed comprise all persons who during the reference period were in the following categories: without work, that is, were not in paid employment or self-employment during the reference period; currently available for work, that is, were available for paid employment or self-employment during the reference period; and seeking work, that is, had taken specific steps in a specified recent period to seek paid employment or self-employment.
NOTE: Row percent estimates do not add to 100 percent because not all categories of the current employment status are displayed.
NOTE: Earnings indicators were converted into deciles. This involved dividing the data for each earnings variable into 10 equally sized groups per country strictly based on the position in the distribution of earnings. The variable reported here was then collapsed into 5 equal categories. For more information on the assignment to deciles please refer to the PIAAC OECD Technical Report.