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Digest of Education Statistics
LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES  

LIST OF 1997 DIGEST TABLES

Tables   Figures
 Chapter 1.  All Levels of Education
Enrollment, Teachers, and Schools
Table 1.Estimated number of participants in elementary and secondary education and in higher education: Fall 1997
Table 2.Enrollment in educational institutions, by level and control of institution: Fall 1980 to fall 2005
Table 3.Enrollment in educational institutions, by level and by control of institution: 1869-70 to fall 2007
Table 4.Teachers in elementary and secondary schools, and senior instructional staff in institutions of higher education, by control of institution: Fall 1970 to fall 2007
Table 5.Educational institutions, by level and control of institution: 1978-79 to 1995-96

Enrollment Rates
Table 6.Percent of the population 3 to 34 years old enrolled in school, by age: April 1940 to October 1997
Table 7.Percent of the population 3 to 34 years old enrolled in school, by race/ethnicity, sex, and age: October 1975 to October 1996

Educational Attainment
Table 8.Years of school completed by persons age 25 and over and 25 to 29, by race/ethnicity and sex: 1910 to 1996
Table 9.Highest level of education attained by persons age 18 and over, by age, sex, and race/ethnicity: March 1996
Table 10.Number of persons age 18 and over who hold a bachelor's or higher degree, by field of study, sex, race, and age: Spring 1993
Table 11.Educational attainment of persons 25 years old and over, by state: April 1990
Table 12.Educational attainment of persons 25 years old and over, by state and race/ethnicity: April 1990
Table 13.Educational attainment of persons 25 years old and over, for the 25 largest states: March 1995
Table 14.Educational attainment of persons 25 years old and over, for the 15 largest metropolitan areas: March 1995

Population
Table 15.Estimates of resident population, by age group: July 1, 1970 to July 1, 1996
Table 16.Estimates of school-age resident population, by race and sex: July 1, 1970 to July 1, 1996
Table 17.Estimated total and school-age resident populations, by state: 1970 to 1996

Characteristics of Families With Children
Table 18.Families, by family status and presence of own children under 18: 1970 to 1995
Table 19.Characteristics of families with own children under 18, by family status and race/ethnicity: 1995
Table 20.Household income and poverty rates, by state: 1990, 1994, and 1995
Table 21.Poverty status of persons, families, and children under 18, by race/ethnicity: 1959 to 1995

Opinions on Education
Table 22.Average grade that the public would give the schools in their community and in the nation at large: 1974 to 1995
Table 23.Items most frequently cited by the general public as a major problem facing the local public schools: 1970 to 1996
Table 24.Public opinion of public and private school choice: 1989 to 1996
Table 25.Parental involvement in 8th graders' school-related activities, by selected parental characteristics: 1988
Table 26.Teachers' opinions about the most important goals for education, by type and control of school: 1990-91
Table 27.Teachers' perceptions about serious problems in their schools, by type and control of school: 1990-91 and 1993-94
Table 28.Teachers' perceptions about teaching and school conditions, by type and control of school: 1993-94
Table 29.Public's level of confidence in various institutions: 1994 and 1996

Charitable Contributions
Table 30.Percentage of households contributing to education and other charitable organizations and average annual donation, by type of charity: 1989, 1991, 1993, and 1995
Table 31.Total expenditures of educational institutions related to the gross domestic product, by level of institution: 1959-60 to 1996-97
Table 32.Total expenditures of educational institutions, by level and control of institution: 1899-1900 to 1996-97
Table 33.Estimated total expenditures of educational institutions, by level, control of institution, and source of funds: 1979-80 to 1994-95
Table 34.Governmental expenditures, by level of government and function: 1970-71 to 1992-93
Table 35.Direct general expenditures of state and local governments for all functions and for education, by level and state: 1992-93
Table 36.Direct general expenditures per capita of state and local governments for all functions and for education, by level and state: 1992-93
Table 37.Gross domestic product, state and local expenditures, personal income, disposable personal income, median family income, and population: 1929 to 1996
Table 38.Gross domestic product deflator, Consumer Price Index, education price indexes, and federal budget composite deflator: 1919 to 1997
 Chapter 2.  Elementary and Secondary Education
Enrollment
Table 39.Historical summary of public elementary and secondary school statistics: 1869-70 to 1994-95
Table 40.Enrollment in public elementary and secondary schools, by level and state: Fall 1981 to fall 1996
Table 41.Enrollment in public elementary and secondary schools, by grade and state: Fall 1995
Table 42.Enrollment in public elementary and secondary schools, by grade and state: Fall 1994
Table 43.Enrollment in public elementary and secondary schools, by grade: Fall 1981 to fall 1995
Table 44.Average daily attendance in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: 1969-70 to 1994-95
Table 45.Enrollment in public elementary and secondary schools, by race or ethnicity and state: Fall 1986 and fall 1995
Table 46.Enrollment of 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children in preprimary programs, by level and control of program and by attendance status: October 1965 to October 1996
Table 47.Children of prekindergarten through second grade age, by enrollment status, maternal characteristics, and household income: 1991, 1993, and 1995
Table 48.Percent of public school kindergarten teachers indicating the importance of various factors for kindergarten readiness: Spring 1993
Table 49.Child care arrangements of preschool children, by age and household characteristics: 1991 and 1995
Table 50.Participation of public kindergarten children in selected activities 5 days a week, by length and size of class and teacher preparation: Spring 1993
Table 51.Public school pupils transported at public expense and current expenditures for transportation: 1929-30 to 1994-95
Table 52.Children 0 to 21 years old served in federally supported programs for the disabled, by type of disability: 1976-77 to 1995-96
Table 53.Percentage distribution of disabled persons 3 to 21 years old receiving education services for the disabled, by age group and educational environment: 1994-95
Table 54.State legislation on gifted and talented programs and number and percent of students receiving services in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: 1993-94 and 1995-96
Table 55.Number of children served under Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and Chapter 1 of the Education Consolidation and Improvement Act, State Operated Programs, by age group and state: 1990-91 to 1995-96
Table 56.Enrollment in grades 9 to 12 in public and private schools compared with population 14 to 17 years of age: 1889-90 to fall 1996
Table 57.Enrollment in foreign language courses compared with enrollment in grades 9 to 12 in public secondary schools: Fall 1948 to fall 1994
Table 58.Student participation in school programs and services, by control, level of school, and type of community: 1993-94

Private Elementary and Secondary Schools
Table 59.Private elementary and secondary enrollment and schools, by selected characteristics: 1993-94
Table 60.Private elementary and secondary staff and student-staff ratios, by level and orientation of school: 1993-94
Table 61.Private elementary and secondary enrollment and schools, by amount of tuition, level, and orientation of school: 1993-94
Table 62.Summary statistics on Catholic elementary and secondary schools, by level: 1919-20 to 1996-97
Table 63.Private elementary and secondary schools, enrollment, teachers, and high school graduates, by state: Fall 1993

Teachers and Other Instructional Staff
Table 64.Public and private elementary and secondary teachers and pupil-teacher ratios, by level: Fall 1955 to fall 1997
Table 65.Public elementary and secondary teachers, by level and state: Fall 1991 to fall 1996
Table 66.Teachers, enrollment, and pupil-teacher ratios in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: Fall 1990 to fall 1995
Table 67.Teachers in public and private elementary and secondary schools, by selected characteristics: 1993-94
Table 68.Highest degree earned and number of years teaching experience for teachers in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: 1993-94
Table 69.Selected characteristics of public school teachers: Spring 1961 to spring 1996
Table 70.Public secondary school teachers, by subject taught: Spring 1966 to spring 1996
Table 71.Percent of vocational and nonvocational public school teachers of grades 9 to 12, by selected demographic and educational characteristics: 1993-94
Table 72.Mobility of public and private elementary and secondary teachers, by selected school and teacher characteristics: 1988-89 to 1994-95
Table 73.Average salaries for full-time teachers in public and private elementary and secondary schools, by selected characteristics: 1993-94
Table 74.Public school students' ratings of the quality of teachers and parental and community support for their schools, by school location and students' race/ethnicity (in percent): 1996
Table 75.Percent of students who give the teachers in their school grades "A" or "B" for their teaching skills, by school location and student's race/ethnicity: 1996
Table 76.Percent of public school students' interest in a career in education, by student characteristics: 1996
Table 77.Estimated average annual salary of teachers in public elementary and secondary schools: 1959-60 to 1996-97
Table 78.Estimated average annual salary of teachers in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: 1969-70 to 1996-97
Table 79.Minimum and average teacher salaries, by state: 1990-91, 1993-94, and 1995-96
Table 80.Average annual salary of instructional staff in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: 1939-40 to 1996-97
Table 81.Estimated average annual salary of instructional staff in public elementary and secondary schools and average annual earnings of full-time employees in all industries: 1929-30 to 1996-97
Table 82.Staff employed in public elementary and secondary school systems, by functional area: 1949-50 to fall 1995
Table 83.Staff employed in public school systems, by type of assignment and state: Fall 1995
Table 84.Staff employed in public school systems, by type of assignment and state: Fall 1994
Table 85.Staff and teachers in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: Fall 1989 to fall 1995
Table 86.Staff, enrollment, and pupil-staff ratios in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: Fall 1989 to fall 1995
Table 87.Principals in public and private elementary and secondary schools, by selected characteristics: 1993-94

Schools and School Districts
Table 88.Public elementary and secondary students, schools, pupil-teacher ratios, and finances, by type of locale: 1995
Table 89.Public school districts and public and private elementary and secondary schools: 1929-30 to 1995-96
Table 90.Public school districts and enrollment, by size of district: 1988-89 to 1995-96
Table 91.Number and percentage of public elementary and secondary education agencies, by state and type of agency: 1995-96
Table 92.Selected statistics for public school districts enrolling more than 20,000 pupils, by state: 1995-96
Table 93.Enrollment of the 130 largest public school districts: Fall 1995
Table 94.Public elementary and secondary schools, by type of school: 1967-68 to 1995-96
Table 95.Public elementary and secondary schools, by type and size of school: 1995-96
Table 96.Public elementary and secondary schools, by type and state: 1990-91 to 1995-96
Table 97.Public elementary schools, by grade span and average school size, by state: 1995-96
Table 98.Public secondary schools, by grade span and average school size, by state: 1995-96

High School Seniors, Completions, and Dropouts
Table 99.High school graduates compared with population 17 years of age, by sex and control of school: 1869-70 to 1996-97
Table 100.Public high school graduates, by state: 1969-70 to 1996-97
Table 101.High school graduates and dropouts in public elementary and secondary schools, by race or ethnicity and state: 1994-95
Table 102.General Educational Development (GED) credentials issued, and number and age of test takers: United States and outlying areas, 1971 to 1995
Table 103.Percent of high school dropouts among persons 16 to 24 years old, by sex and race/ethnicity: April 1960 to October 1996
Table 104.Percent of high school dropouts among persons 16 to 34 years old, by age, sex, and race/ethnicity: October 1970 to October 1996
Table 105.Students with disabilities exiting the educational system, by age, type of disability, and basis of exit: United States and outlying areas, 1991-92 and 1993-94
Table 106.Postsecondary education and employment status, wages earned, and living arrangements of special education students out of secondary school up to 3 years: 1990

Educational Achievement
Table 107.Average student proficiency in reading, by age and selected characteristics of students: 1971 to 1996
Table 108.Student proficiency in reading, by percentile and age: 1971 to 1996
Table 109.Student proficiency in reading, by age, amount of time spent on homework and reading habits: 1984, 1994, and 1996
Table 110.Percent of students at or above selected reading proficiency levels, by sex, race/ethnicity and age: 1971 to 1996
Table 111.Average proficiency in reading for 4th graders in public schools, by selected characteristics, region, and state: 1994
Table 112.Percentage distribution of 4th graders in public schools, by time spent on homework and television viewing each day: 1992 and 1996
Table 113.Average writing performance of 4th, 8th, and 11th graders, by selected characteristics of students: 1984 to 1996
Table 114.Student values and attitudes toward writing, by grade level: 1984, 1990, 1992, and 1994
Table 115.Percent of students at or above selected history proficiency levels, by selected characteristics and grade level: 1994
Table 116.Average student proficiency in geography and U.S. history, by student characteristics: 1994
Table 117.Percent of students at or above selected geography proficiency levels, by selected characteristics and grade level: 1994
Table 118.Average mathematics proficiency, by age and by selected characteristics of students: 1973 to 1996
Table 119.Percent of students at or above selected mathematics proficiency levels, by sex, race/ethnicity, control of school, and age: 1978 to 1996
Table 120.Average proficiency in mathematics content areas for 8th graders in public schools, by region and state: 1996
Table 121.Average proficiency in mathematics content areas for 4th graders in public schools, by region and state: 1996
Table 122.Selected characteristics of 8th grade students in public schools, by region and state: 1992
Table 123.Mathematics proficiency of 17-year-olds, by highest mathematics course taken, sex, and race/ethnicity: 1978, 1990, 1992, 1994, and 1996
Table 124.Percent of students at or above selected science proficiency levels, by sex, race/ethnicity, control of school, and age: 1977 to 1996
Table 125.Average proficiency in science for 8th graders in public schools, by selected characteristics and state: 1996
Table 126.Average science proficiency, by age and by selected characteristics of students: 1970 to 1996
Table 127.Twelfth graders' achievement on history, mathematics, reading, and science tests: 1992
Table 128.Scholastic Assessment Test score averages, by race/ethnicity: 1975-76 to 1994-95
Table 129.Scholastic Assessment Test score averages for college-bound high school seniors, by sex: 1966-67 to 1996-97
Table 130.Distribution of Scholastic Assessment Test scores, by sex of student: 1975-76 to 1994-95
Table 131.Scholastic Assessment Test score averages, by intended area of study: 1977-78 to 1994-95
Table 132.Scholastic Assessment Test score averages, by class rank: 1976-77 to 1994-95
Table 133.Scholastic Assessment Test score averages, by state: 1974-75 to 1994-95
Table 134.American College Testing (ACT) score averages, by sex: 1967 to 1996
Table 135.Percent of high school seniors reporting they were in general, college preparatory, and vocational programs, by student characteristics: 1982 and 1992
Table 136.Average number of Carnegie units earned by public high school graduates in various subject fields, by student characteristics: 1982 to 1994
Table 137.Average number of Carnegie units earned by public school graduates in vocational education courses, by student characteristics: 1982 to 1994
Table 138.Percentage of high school graduates taking selected, mathematics and science courses in high school, by sex and race/ethnicity: 1982 to 1994
Table 139.Percent of high school graduates earning minimum credits in selected combinations of academic courses, by sex and race/ethnicity: 1982 to 1994

Student Activities and Behavior
Table 140.Reasons given by twelfth graders for taking current mathematics and science classes, by selected student and school characteristics: 1992
Table 141.Expected occupations of 8th, 10th, and 12th graders at age 30, by selected student and school characteristics: 1988, 1990, and 1992
Table 142.Eighth, tenth, and twelfth graders' attitudes about school climate, by student and school characteristics: 1988, 1990, and 1992
Table 143.Percentage of 3- to 5-year-olds who were read to every day in the last week by a family member: 1993, 1995, and 1996
Table 144.Participation of 10th and 12th graders in extracurricular activities, by selected student characteristics: 1990 and 1992
Table 145.Percent of high school seniors who plan to go to college after graduation, by student characteristics: 1982 and 1992
Table 146.Percent of high school seniors who say they engage in various activities, by student characteristics: 1982 and 1992
Table 147.Percent of high school seniors who participate in selected school-sponsored extracurricular activities, by student characteristics: 1980 and 1992
Table 148.Percent of high school students in grades 9 through 12 who reported experience with drugs and violence on school property, by race/ethnicity, grade, and sex: 1993 and 1995
Table 149.Percent of 12- to 17-year-olds reporting drug use during the past 30 days and the past year: 1979 to 1995
Table 150.Percent of high school seniors reporting drug use, by type of drug and frequency of use: 1975 to 1996
Table 151.Percent of students (grades 7 to 12) who feel that certain problems are very serious: 1996

State Regulations
Table 152.Ages for compulsory school attendance, special education services for students, policies for kindergarten programs, and year-round schools, by state: 1997 and 1995
Table 153.Tenth and twelfth graders' attendance patterns, by selected student and school characteristics: 1990 and 1992
Table 154.Twelfth graders who agree or strongly agree with statements about their school: 1992
Table 155.State requirements for high school graduation, in Carnegie units: 1993 and 1996
Table 156.States using minimum-competency testing, by government level setting standards, grade levels assessed, and expected uses of standards: 1995-96
Table 157.States requiring testing for initial certification of teachers, by authorization, year enacted, year effective, and test used: 1987 and 1990 and 1996

Revenues and Expenditures
Table 158.Revenues for public elementary and secondary schools, by source of funds: 1919-20 to 1994-95
Table 159.Revenues for public elementary and secondary schools, by source and state: 1994-95
Table 160.Revenues for public elementary and secondary schools, by source and state: 1993-94
Table 161.Funds and staff for state education agencies, by source of funding and state: 1992-93
Table 162.Summary of expenditures for public elementary and secondary education, by purpose: 1919-20 to 1994-95
Table 163.Total expenditures for public elementary and secondary education, by function and subfunction: 1989-90 to 1994-95
Table 164.Expenditures for instruction in public elementary and secondary schools, by subfunction and state: 1993-94 and 1994-95
Table 165.Current expenditures for public elementary and secondary education, by state: 1969-70 to 1996-97
Table 166.Total expenditures for public elementary and secondary education, by function and state: 1994-95
Table 167.Total expenditures for public elementary and secondary education, by function and state: 1993-94
Table 168.Current expenditure per pupil in average daily attendance in public elementary and secondary schools, by state: 1959-60 to 1994-95
Table 169.Total and current expenditure per pupil in public elementary and secondary schools: 1919-20 to 1996-97
 Chapter 3.  Postsecondary Education
Degree-Granting Institutions
Enrollment
Table 170.Enrollment and staff in, and degrees conferred by, institutions of higher education and noncollegiate postsecondary institutions: 1994-95 and fall 1993 and 1995
Table 171.Historical summary of faculty, students, degrees, and finances in institutions of higher education: 1869-70 to 1994-95
Table 172.Total fall enrollment in institutions of higher education, by attendance status, sex of student, and control of institution: 1947 to 1995
Table 173.Total fall enrollment in institutions of higher education, by control and type of institution: 1965 to 1995
Table 174.Total fall enrollment in institutions of higher education, by attendance status, sex, and age: 1970 to 2007
Table 175.Total fall enrollment in institutions of higher education, by level, sex, age, and attendance status of student: 1995
Table 176.Total fall enrollment in institutions of higher education, by type and control of institution, and age and attendance status of student: 1995
Table 177.Total fall enrollment in institutions of higher education, by level of enrollment, sex, attendance status, and type and control of institution: 1994 and 1995
Table 178.Total fall enrollment in institutions of higher education, by type and control of institution, attendance status, and sex of student: 1970 to 1995
Table 179.Fall enrollment and number of institutions of higher education, by affiliation of institution: 1980 to 1995
Table 180.Total fall enrollment in institutions of higher education, by type and control of institution, and attendance status and level of student: 1992 to 1995
Table 181.Total first-time freshmen enrolled in institutions of higher education, by sex of student, attendance status, and type and control of institution: Fall 1955 to fall 1995
Table 182.Total first-time freshmen enrolled in institutions of higher education, by attendance status, sex, control of institution, and state: Fall 1992 to fall 1995
Table 183.College enrollment rates of high school graduates, by race/ethnicity: 1960 to 1996
Table 184.College enrollment rates of high school graduates, by sex: 1960 to 1996
Table 185.Graduation, college preparation, and college application rates of high school students, by selected school characteristics: 1993-94
Table 186.Enrollment rates of 18- to 24-year-olds in institutions of higher education, by race/ethnicity: 1967 to 1996
Table 187.Total undergraduate fall enrollment in institutions of higher education, by sex of student, attendance status, and control of institution: 1969 to 1995
Table 188.Total graduate fall enrollment in institutions of higher education, by attendance status, sex of student, and control of institution: 1969 to 1995
Table 189.Total first-professional fall enrollment in institutions of higher education, by attendance status, sex of student, and control of institution: 1969 to 1995
Table 190.Total fall enrollment in institutions of higher education, by state: 1970 to 1995
Table 191.Total fall enrollment in public institutions of higher education, by state: 1970 to 1995
Table 192.Total fall enrollment in private institutions of higher education, by state: 1970 to 1995
Table 193.Total fall enrollment in all institutions of higher education, by attendance status, sex, and state: 1994 and 1995
Table 194.Total fall enrollment in public institutions of higher education, by attendance status, sex, and state: 1994 and 1995
Table 195.Total fall enrollment in private institutions of higher education, by attendance status, sex, and state: 1994 and 1995
Table 196.Total fall enrollment in institutions of higher education, by control, type of institution, and state: 1994 and 1995
Table 197.Total fall enrollment in institutions of higher education, by level of enrollment and state: 1993 to 1995
Table 198.Total fall enrollment in institutions of higher education, by control, level of enrollment, and state: 1995
Table 199.Total fall enrollment in institutions of higher education, by control, level of enrollment, and state: 1994
Table 200.Full-time-equivalent fall enrollment in institutions of higher education, by control and type of institution: 1969 to 1995
Table 201.Full-time-equivalent fall enrollment in institutions of higher education, by control, type of institution, and state: 1993 to 1995
Table 202.Full-time-equivalent fall enrollment in institutions of higher education, by control and state: 1980 to 1995
Table 203.Residence and migration of all freshmen students in institutions of higher education, by state: Fall 1994
Table 204.Residence and migration of all freshmen students in institutions of higher education graduating from high school in the past 12 months, by state: Fall 1994
Table 205.Residence and migration of all freshmen students in 4-year colleges graduating from high school in the past 12 months, by state: Fall 1994
Table 206.Total fall enrollment in institutions of higher education, by type and control of institution and race/ethnicity of student: 1976 to 1995
Table 207.Total fall enrollment in institutions of higher education, by level of study, sex, and race/ethnicity of student: 1976 to 1995
Table 208.Total fall enrollment in institutions of higher education, by level, attendance status, sex, and race/ethnicity of student: 1994 and 1995
Table 209.Total number of institutions and fall enrollment in institutions of higher education, by percentage minority enrollment: 1995
Table 210.Total fall enrollment in institutions of higher education, by race/ethnicity of student and by state: 1992 to 1995
Table 211.Number and percent of students enrolled in postsecondary institutions, by disability status and selected student characteristics: 1995-96
Table 212.Enrollment of persons 14 to 34 years of age in institutions of higher education, by race/ethnicity, sex, and year of college: October 1965 to October 1996
Table 213.Enrollment in postsecondary education, by major field of study, age, and level of student: 1995-96
Table 214.Graduate enrollment in science and engineering programs in institutions of higher education, by field of study: United States and outlying areas, fall 1984 to fall 1995
Table 215.Institutions of higher education and branches, by type, control, and size of enrollment: Fall 1994 and fall 1995
Table 216.Enrollment of the 120 largest college and university campuses: Fall 1995
Table 217.Selected statistics for college and university campuses enrolling more than 14,600 students in 1995
Table 218.Fall enrollment, degrees conferred, and expenditures in historically black colleges and universities, by institution: 1995
Table 219.Selected statistics on historically black colleges and universities: 1980, 1990, and 1995
Table 220.Fall enrollment in historically black colleges and universities, by type and control of institution: 1976 to 1995

Staff
Table 221.Employees in institutions of higher education, by primary occupation, employment status, and control of institution: Fall 1976, fall 1991, and fall 1993
Table 222.Employees in institutions of higher education by race/ethnicity, primary occupation, control of institution, sex, and employment status: Fall 1993
Table 223.Employees in institutions of higher education, by primary occupation, sex, employment status, and by type and control of institution: Fall 1993
Table 224.Staff and student/staff ratios in institutions of higher education, by type and control of institution and by state: Fall 1993

Faculty
Table 225.Full-time and part-time senior instructional faculty in institutions of higher education, by employment status, control, and type of institution: Fall 1970 to fall 1993
Table 226.Full-time instructional faculty in institutions of higher education, by race/ethnicity, academic rank, and sex: Fall 1993
Table 227.Full-time and part-time instructional faculty and staff in institutions of higher education, by selected characteristics and type and control of institution: Fall 1992
Table 228.Full-time instructional faculty and staff in institutions of higher education, by instruction activities and type and control of institution: Fall 1992
Table 229.Part-time instructional faculty and staff in institutions of higher education, by instruction activities and type and control of institution: Fall 1992
Table 230.Full-time and part-time instructional faculty and staff in institutions of higher education, by type and control, academic rank, age, salary, race/ethnicity, and sex: Fall 1992
Table 231.Full-time and part-time instructional faculty and staff in institutions of higher education, by faculty characteristics and field: Fall 1992
Table 232.Percentage distribution of full-time and part-time instructional faculty and staff in institutions of higher education, by program area, race/ethnicity, and sex: Fall 1992
Table 233.Average base salaries of full-time instructional faculty and staff in institutions of higher education, by type and control of institution and by field of instruction: 1987-88 and 1992-93
Table 234.Average salary of full-time instructional faculty on 9-month contracts in institutions of higher education, by academic rank, sex, and control and type of institution: 1970-71 to 1995-96
Table 235.Average salary of full-time instructional faculty on 9-month contracts in institutions of higher education, by academic rank, sex, and by type and control of institution: 1980-81, 1990-91, 1994-95, and 1995-96
Table 236.Average salary of full-time instructional faculty on 9-month contracts in institutions of higher education, by type and control of institution and by state: 1995-96
Table 237.Average salary of full-time instructional faculty on 9-month contracts in institutions of higher education, by type and control of institution and by state: 1994-95
Table 238.Average salary of full-time instructional faculty on 9-month contracts in 4-year institutions of higher education, by type and control of institution and rank of faculty and by state: 1995-96
Table 239.Average salary of full-time instructional faculty on 9-month contracts in 4-year institutions of higher education, by type and control of institution and rank of faculty and by state: 1994-95
Table 240.Full-time instructional faculty with tenure for institutions reporting tenure status, by academic rank, sex, and type and control of institution: 1980-81, 1990-91, 1994-95, and 1995-96

Institutions
Table 241.Institutions of higher education, by control and type of institution: 1949-50 to 1995-96
Table 242.Institutions of higher education and branches, by type, control of institution, and state: 1995-96
Table 243.Institutions of higher education that have closed their doors, by control and type of institution: 1960-61 to 1995-96

Degrees
Table 244.Earned degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by level of degree and sex of student: 1869-70 to 2006-07
Table 245.Degrees awarded by institutions of higher education, by control, level of degree, and state: 1994-95
Table 246.Earned degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by level of degree and by state: 1993-94 and 1994-95
Table 247.Associate degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by sex of student and field of study: 1988-89 to 1992-93
Table 248.Associate degrees and other subbaccalaureate awards conferred by institutions of higher education, by length of curriculum, sex of student, and field of study: 1994-95
Table 249.Associate degrees and other subbaccalaureate awards conferred by institutions of higher education, by length of curriculum, sex of student, and field of study: 1993-94
Table 250.Bachelor's degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by discipline division: 1970-71 to 1994-95
Table 251.Master's degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by discipline division: 1970-71 to 1994-95
Table 252.Doctor's degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by discipline division: 1970-71 to 1994-95
Table 253.Bachelor's, master's, and doctor's degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by sex of student and field of study: 1994-95
Table 254.Bachelor's, master's, and doctor's degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by sex of student and field of study: 1993-94
Table 255.Degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by control of institution: 1969-70 to 1994-95
Table 256.Degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by control of institution, level of degree, and discipline division: 1994-95
Table 257.Degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by control of institution, level of degree, and discipline division: 1993-94
Table 258.Number of institutions of higher education conferring degrees, by level of degree and discipline division: 1994-95
Table 259.Number of institutions of higher education conferring degrees, by level of degree and discipline division: 1993-94
Table 260.First-professional degrees conferred by institutions of higher education in dentistry, medicine, and law, by sex, and number of institutions conferring degrees: 1949-50 to 1994-95
Table 261.First-professional degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by sex of student, control of institution, and field of study: 1983-84 to 1994-95
Table 262.Associate degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by racial/ethnic group and sex of student: 1976-77 to 1994-95
Table 263.Associate degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by racial/ethnic group, major field of study, and sex of student: 1994-95
Table 264.Associate degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by racial/ethnic group, major field of study, and sex of student: 1993-94
Table 265.Bachelor's degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by racial/ethnic group and sex of student: 1976-77 to 1994-95
Table 266.Bachelor's degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by racial/ethnic group, major field of study, and sex of student: 1994-95
Table 267.Bachelor's degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by racial/ethnic group, major field of study, and sex of student: 1993-94
Table 268.Master's degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by racial/ethnic group and sex of student: 1976-77 to 1994-95
Table 269.Master's degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by racial/ethnic group, major field of study, and sex of student: 1994-95
Table 270.Master's degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by racial/ethnic group, major field of study, and sex of student: 1993-94
Table 271.Doctor's degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by racial/ethnic group and sex of student: 1976-77 to 1994-95
Table 272.Doctor's degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by racial/ethnic group, major field of study, and sex of student: 1994-95
Table 273.Doctor's degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by racial/ethnic group, major field of study, and sex of student: 1993-94
Table 274.First-professional degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by racial/ethnic group and sex of student: 1976-77 to 1994-95
Table 275.First-professional degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by racial/ethnic group, major field of study, and sex of student: 1994-95
Table 276.First-professional degrees conferred by institutions of higher education, by racial/ethnic group, major field of study, and sex of student: 1993-94
Table 277.Earned degrees in agriculture and natural resources conferred by institutions of higher education, by level of degree and sex of student: 1970-71 to 1994-95
Table 278.Earned degrees in architecture and related programs conferred by institutions of higher education, by level of degree and sex of student: 1949-50 to 1994-95
Table 279.Earned degrees in the biological/life sciences conferred by institutions of higher education, by level of degree and sex of student: 1951-52 to 1994-95
Table 280.Earned degrees in biology, microbiology, and zoology conferred by institutions of higher education, by level of degree: 1970-71 to 1994-95
Table 281.Earned degrees in business conferred by institutions of higher education, by level of degree and sex of student: 1955-56 to 1994-95
Table 282.Earned degrees in communications conferred by institutions of higher education, by level of degree and sex of student: 1970-71 to 1994-95
Table 283.Earned degrees in computer and information sciences conferred by institutions of higher education, by level of degree and sex of student: 1970-71 to 1994-95
Table 284.Earned degrees in education conferred by institutions of higher education, by level of degree and sex of student: 1949-50 to 1994-95
Table 285.Earned degrees in engineering conferred by institutions of higher education, by level of degree and sex of student: 1949-50 to 1994-95
Table 286.Earned degrees in chemical, civil, electrical, and mechanical engineering conferred by institutions of higher education, by level of degree: 1970-71 to 1994-95
Table 287.Earned degrees in English language and literature/letters conferred by institutions of higher education, by level of degree and sex of student: 1949-50 to 1994-95
Table 288.Earned degrees in modern foreign languages and literatures conferred by institutions of higher education, by level of degree and sex of student: 1949-50 to 1994-95
Table 289.Earned degrees in French, German, and Spanish conferred by institutions of higher education, by level of degree: 1949-50 to 1994-95
Table 290.Earned degrees in the health professions and related sciences conferred by institutions of higher education, by level of degree and sex of student: 1970-71 to 1994-95
Table 291.Earned degrees in mathematics conferred by institutions of higher education, by level of degree and sex of student: 1949-50 to 1994-95
Table 292.Earned degrees in the physical sciences conferred by institutions of higher education, by level of degree and sex of student: 1959-60 to 1994-95
Table 293.Earned degrees in chemistry, geology, and physics conferred by institutions of higher education, by level of degree: 1970-71 to 1994-95
Table 294.Earned degrees in psychology conferred by institutions of higher education, by level of degree and by sex of student: 1949-50 to 1994-95
Table 295.Earned degrees in public administration and services conferred by institutions of higher education, by level of degree and sex of student: 1970-71 to 1994-95
Table 296.Earned degrees in the social sciences and history conferred by institutions of higher education, by level of degree and sex of student: 1970-71 to 1994-95
Table 297.Earned degrees in economics, history, political science and government, and sociology conferred by institutions of higher education, by level of degree: 1949-50 to 1994-95
Table 298.Earned degrees in visual and performing arts conferred by institutions of higher education, by level of degree and sex of student: 1970-71 to 1994-95
Table 299.Statistical profile of persons receiving doctor's degrees, by field of study: 1994-95
Table 300.Statistical profile of persons receiving doctor's degrees in education: 1979-80 to 1994-95
Table 301.Statistical profile of persons receiving doctor's degrees in engineering: 1979-80 to 1994-95
Table 302.Statistical profile of persons receiving doctor's degrees in the humanities: 1979-80 to 1994-95
Table 303.Statistical profile of persons receiving doctor's degrees in the life sciences: 1979-80 to 1994-95
Table 304.Statistical profile of persons receiving doctor's degrees in the physical sciences: 1979-80 to 1994-95
Table 305.Statistical profile of persons receiving doctor's degrees in the social sciences: 1979-80 to 1994-95
Table 306.Doctor's degrees conferred by 60 large institutions of higher education: 1985-86 to 1994-95

Outcomes
Table 307.Percentage distribution of 1980 high school sophomores, by highest level of education completed through 1992, by selected student characteristics: 1980 to 1992
Table 308.Mean number of semester credits completed by bachelor's degree recipients, by major and course area: 1972 to 1976 and 1980 to 1984
Table 309.Colleges and universities offering remedial services, by type and control of institution: 1987-88 to 1995-96
Table 310.Percent distribution of enrollment and completion status of first-time postsecondary students starting during the 1989-90 academic year, by degree objective and other student characteristics: 1994
Table 311.Scores on Graduate Record Examination (GRE) and subject matter tests: 1965 to 1996

Student Charges and Student Financial Assistance
Table 312.Average undergraduate tuition and fees and room and board rates paid by students in institutions of higher education, by type and control of institution: 1964-65 to 1996-97
Table 313.Average undergraduate tuition and fees and room and board rates paid by students in institutions of higher education, by control of institution and by state: 1995-96 and 1996-97
Table 314.Average graduate and first-professional tuition paid by students in institutions of higher education: 1987-88 to 1996-97
Table 315.Percent of undergraduates receiving aid and average amount awarded in 1995-96 per student, by type and source of aid and selected student characteristics
Table 316.Undergraduates enrolled full-time and part-time, by aid status and source of aid during 1995-96, and control and level of institution
Table 317.Percent of undergraduates receiving aid, by type and source of aid received, and by control and level of institution: 1992-93 and 1995-96
Table 318.Undergraduates enrolled full-time and part-time, by federal aid program and by control and level of institution: 1995-96
Table 319.Postbaccalaureate students enrolled full-time and part-time, by aid status, source of aid, and by level of study and control and level of institution: 1992-93 and 1995-96
Table 320.Postbaccalaureate students enrolled full-time and part-time, by type of aid and by level of study, control, and level of institution: 1992-93 and 1995-96
Table 321.Scholarship and fellowship awards of institutions of higher education, by control of institution: 1959-60 to 1994-95
Table 322.Pell Grant revenue of institutions of higher education compared to current-fund revenue and tuition, by type and control of institution: 1985-86 to 1994-95
Table 323.State awards for need-based undergraduate scholarship and grant programs, by state: 1983-84 to 1995-96

Income
Table 324.Current-fund revenue of institutions of higher education, by source: 1980-81 to 1994-95
Table 325.Current-fund revenue of public institutions of higher education, by source: 1980-81 to 1994-95
Table 326.Current-fund revenue of private institutions of higher education, by source: 1980-81 to 1994-95
Table 327.Revenue of institutions of higher education, by source of funds: 1919-20 to 1994-95
Table 328.Revenue of institutions of higher education, by source of funds, and by control and type of institution: 1994-95
Table 329.Current-fund revenue of public institutions of higher education, by state: 1980-81 to 1994-95
Table 330.Current-fund revenue of public institutions of higher education, by source of funds and state: 1994-95
Table 331.Current-fund revenue of public institutions of higher education, by source of funds and state: 1993-94
Table 332.Current-fund revenue from state and local governments of institutions of higher education, by state: 1985-86 to 1994-95
Table 333.Current-fund revenue received from the federal government by the 120 institutions of higher education receiving the largest amounts: 1994-95

Expenditures
Table 334.Current-fund expenditures and educational and general expenditures of institutions of higher education, by purpose and per student: 1929-30 to 1994-95
Table 335.Expenditures of institutions of higher education, by purpose and by control and type of institution: 1994-95
Table 336.Current-fund expenditures and expenditures per full-time-equivalent student in institutions of higher education, by type and control of institution: 1970-71 to 1994-95
Table 337.Current-fund expenditures of institutions of higher education, by purpose: 1980-81 to 1994-95
Table 338.Current-fund expenditures of public institutions of higher education, by purpose: 1980-81 to 1994-95
Table 339.Current-fund expenditures of private institutions of higher education, by purpose: 1980-81 to 1994-95
Table 340.Voluntary support for institutions of higher education, by source and purpose of support: 1949-50 to 1994-95
Table 341.Educational and general expenditures of public universities, by purpose: 1976-77 to 1994-95
Table 342.Educational and general expenditures of public 4-year colleges, by purpose: 1976-77 to 1994-95
Table 343.Educational and general expenditures of public 2-year colleges, by purpose: 1976-77 to 1994-95
Table 344.Educational and general expenditures of private (nonprofit) universities, by purpose: 1976-77 to 1994-95
Table 345.Educational and general expenditures of private (nonprofit) 4-year colleges, by purpose: 1976-77 to 1994-95
Table 346.Current-fund expenditures of public institutions of higher education, by state: 1980-81 to 1994-95
Table 347.Educational and general expenditures of public institutions of higher education, by state: 1980-81 to 1994-95
Table 348.Current-fund expenditures and educational and general expenditures of private institutions of higher education, by state: 1985-86 to 1994-95
Table 349.Current-fund expenditures per full-time-equivalent student in institutions of higher education, by control and type of institution and purpose of expenditure: 1994-95

Property
Table 350.Additions to physical plant value of institutions of higher education, by type of addition and control of institution: 1969-70 to 1994-95
Table 351.Value of property and liabilities of institutions of higher education: 1899-1900 to 1994-95
Table 352.Endowment funds of the 120 institutions of higher education with the largest amounts: Fiscal year 1995

Adult and Vocational Education
Adult Education
Table 353.Participation of employed persons, 17 years old and over, in adult education during the previous 12 months, by selected characteristics of participants: 1995
Table 354.Participation in adult education during the previous 12 months by adults 17 years old and older, by selected characteristics of participants: 1991 and 1995
Table 355.Participants in adult basic and secondary education programs, by level of enrollment and state: Fiscal years 1980, 1990, and 1995

Vocational Education
Table 356.Number of noncollegiate institutions offering postsecondary education, by control and state: 1993-94, 1994-95, and 1995-96
 Chapter 4.  Federal Programs for Education and Related Activities
Table 357.Federal support and estimated federal tax expenditures for education, by category: Fiscal years 1965 to 1997
Table 358.Federal on-budget funds for education, by agency: Fiscal years 1965 to 1997
Table 359.Federal on-budget funds for education, by level or other educational purpose, by agency and program: Fiscal years 1965 to 1997
Table 360.Estimated federal support for education, by agency and type of ultimate recipient: Fiscal year 1997
Table 361.Federal on-budget funds obligated for programs administered by the Department of Education: Fiscal years 1980 to 1997
Table 362.U.S. Department of Education outlays, by level of education and type of recipient: Fiscal years 1980 to 1997
Table 363.U.S. Department of Education obligations for major programs, by state or other area: Fiscal year 1996
Table 364.U.S. Department of Education obligations for major programs, by state or other area: Fiscal year 1995
Table 365.Appropriations for Title I and Title VI, Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1994, by state or other area: 1995-96 and 1996-97
Table 366.Federal science and engineering obligations to colleges and universities, by agency and state: Fiscal year 1995
Table 367.Summary of federal funds for research, development, and R & D plant: Fiscal years 1989 to 1997
Table 368.Federal obligations to colleges and universities for research and development, by field: United States and outlying areas, 1980 to 1994
Table 369.U.S. Department of Agriculture obligations for child nutrition programs, by state or other area: Fiscal years 1995 and 1996
Table 370.U.S. Department of Health and Human Services allocations for Head Start and enrollment in Head Start, by state or other area: Fiscal years 1993 to 1996
Table 371.Public school students receiving federally funded free or reduced price lunches, by selected school characteristics: School year 1993-94
Table 372.Public and private school students receiving federally funded Chapter I services, by selected school characteristics: School year 1993-94
 Chapter 5.  Outcomes of Education
Educational Characteristics of the Workforce
Table 373.Percent of 18- to 25-year-olds reporting drug use during the past 30 days and the past year: 1979 to 1995
Table 374.Percent of 1972, 1982, and 1992 high school seniors who felt that certain life values were "very important," by sex: 1972 to 1994
Table 375.Labor force participation of persons 16 years old and over, by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and highest level of education: 1996
Table 376.Occupation of employed persons 25 years old and over, by educational attainment and sex: 1996
Table 377.Unemployment rate of persons 16 years old and over, by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and highest degree attained: 1994, 1995 and 1996
Table 378.Median annual income of year-round full-time workers 25 years old and over, by level of education completed and sex: 1989 to 1995
Table 379.Total annual money income and median income of persons 25 years old and over, by educational attainment and sex: 1995
Table 380.College enrollment and labor force status of 1995 and 1996 high school graduates 16 to 24 years old, by sex and race/ethnicity: October 1995 and October 1996

Recent High School and College Graduates
Table 381.Labor force status of 1979-80 to 1995-96 high school dropouts 16 to 24 years old, by sex and race/ethnicity: October 1980 to October 1996
Table 382.Employment of 12th graders, by selected student characteristics: 1992
Table 383.Full-time employment status of bachelor's degree recipients 1 year after graduation, by field of study: 1976 to 1991
Table 384.Employment status of 1992-93 bachelor's degree recipients 1 year after graduation, by field of study and occupational area: 1994
Table 385.Percentage of 1992-93 bachelor's degree recipients pursuing further education within one year after graduation, by type of enrollment and undergraduate major: April 1994
Table 386.Average annual salary of bachelor's degree recipients employed full-time 1 year after graduation, by field of study: 1976 to 1994
Table 387.Participation of young adults in voluntary or community service activities, by selected characteristics: 1992 to 1994
Table 388.Literacy skills of adults, 16 years old and over, by selected characteristics: 1992
 Chapter 6.  International Comparisons of Education
Table 389.School-age populations as a percent of total population: Selected countries, 1985, 1990 and 1995
Table 390.Percent of population enrolled in secondary and postsecondary institutions, by age group: Selected countries, 1985, 1990, and 1994
Table 391.Estimated population, school enrollment, teachers, and public expenditures for education in major areas of the world: 1980, 1990, 1993, and 1994
Table 392.Selected statistics for countries with populations over 10 million, by continent: 1980, 1990, and 1994
Table 393.Pupils per teacher in public and private elementary and secondary schools, by level of education: Selected countries, 1985 to 1994
Table 394.Geography proficiency of 13-year-olds in educational systems participating in the International Assessment of Educational Progress: 1991
Table 395.Average eighth grade mathematics scores by content areas, and average time spent studying out of school, by country: 1994-95
Table 396.Instructional practices and time spent teaching mathematics in eighth grade, by country: 1994-95
Table 397.Average eighth grade science scores by content areas, and average time spent studying out of school, by country: 1994-95
Table 398.Instructional practices and time spent teaching science in eighth grade, by country: 1994-95
Table 399.Average size of eighth grade mathematics class, and frequency teachers assign mathematics homework, by country: 1994-95
Table 400.Eighth grade students' perceptions about mathematics achievement and hours spent on leisure activities, by country: 1994-95
Table 401.Average fourth grade mathematics scores, by content areas, and average time spent studying mathematics out of school, by country: 1994-95
Table 402.Average fourth grade science scores, by content areas, and average time spent teaching science in school, by country: 1994-95
Table 403.Reading literacy test scores of 9-year-olds: Selected countries, 1992
Table 404.Reading literacy test scores of 14-year-olds: Selected countries, 1992
Table 405.Number of bachelor's degree recipients per 100 persons of the theoretical age of graduation, by sex: Selected countries, 1989 to 1994
Table 406.Percent of bachelor's degrees awarded in science: Selected countries, 1985 to 1994
Table 407.Percent of graduate degrees awarded in science: Selected countries, 1985, 1990, and 1991
Table 408.Public education expenditures per student, by level of student: Selected countries, 1985 to 1993
Table 409.Public expenditures for education as a percentage of gross domestic product, by level of education: Selected countries, 1985 to 1993
Table 410.Foreign students enrolled in institutions of higher education in the United States and outlying areas, by continent, region, and selected countries of origin: 1980-81 to 1995-96
 Chapter 7.  Learning Resources and Technology
Libraries
Table 411.Percentage of school library/media centers that offered selected services and equipment, and library/media center expenditures, by control and level of school: 1993-94
Table 412.Selected statistics on of public school library/media centers, by level and enrollment size of school: 1993-94
Table 413.Selected statistics on public school library/media centers, by state: 1993-94
Table 414.Percent of public and private schools having access to selected telecommunication capabilities, by location of access site and level of school: 1995
Table 415.Percent of public schools and school classrooms having access to the Internet, by school characteristics: 1994, 1995 and 1996
Table 416.General statistics of college and university libraries: 1974-75 to 1994-95
Table 417.Selected statistics on the collections, staff, and operating expenditures of 60 large college and university libraries: 1994
Table 418.General statistics of public libraries, by population of legal service area: 1994
Table 419.Public libraries, books and serial volumes, library visits, and reference transactions, by state: 1994

Computers and Technology
Table 420.Percent of workers, 18 years old and over, using computers on the job, by selected characteristics and computer activities: October 1993
Table 421.Access to and use of home computers, by selected characteristics of students and other users: October 1993
Table 422.Student use of computers, by level of instruction and selected characteristics: October 1984, 1989, and 1993

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