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Table 32.  Percentage of public middle schools reporting their efforts to reduce or prevent crime were limited by specified non-school-level factors, by selected school characteristics: 1999–2000


School characteristic Teacher contracts Inadequate funds Fear of district or state reprisal Federal policies on disciplining disabled students Other federal policies on discipline and safety State or district policies on discipline and safety Percent of
schools that
did not feel
they were
limited in
any way
All public middle schools 28 63 18 66 41 38 9
               
Enrollment size              
Less than 300 19 50 17 50 30 29 21
300–499 25 73 20 70 50 41 6
500–999 32 66 19 70 42 40 6
1,000 or more26 57 14 64 40 38 10
               
Urbanicity              
City 33 62 20 65 42 41 9
Urban fringe 35 65 18 65 39 38 8
Town 17 67 18 70 51 40 7
Rural 20 61 17 65 38 33 12
               
Crime level where students live1              
High 38 61 34 75 45 52 3
Moderate 29 68 24 70 52 51 7
Low 25 60 14 62 37 32 11
Mixed 33 74 24 75 45 43 5
               
Percent minority enrollment1              
0–5 percent 26 70 17 65 39 34 8
6–20 percent 24 59 13 67 39 35 12
21–50 percent 35 67 18 70 45 42 5
More than 50 percent 27 58 25 60 42 43 10
               
Percent of students eligible for free/reduced-price lunch              
0–20 percent 25 60 14 68 36 32 11
21–50 percent 31 70 17 65 41 35 7
More than 50 percent 25 58 25 64 47 48 10
               
Percent of students below 15th percentile on standardized tests              
0–5 percent 21 59 15 56 34 31 16
6–15 percent 28 63 17 69 42 37 6
More than 15 percent 33 69 23 71 46 45 8
               
Percent of students likely to attend college              
0–35 percent 30 64 22 63 41 39 6
36–60 percent 23 63 16 68 45 42 9
More than 60 percent 30 64 17 65 38 33 12
               
Percent of students who consider academic achievement important              
0–25 percent 35 64 22 67 42 37 8
26–50 percent 29 68 22 71 41 42 6
51–75 percent 30 62 18 65 44 39 9
More than 75 percent 22 62 15 63 38 34 12
               
Percent male enrollment              
0–44 percent 23 55 18 58 32 32 14
45–55 percent 29 65 19 69 44 40 8
More than 55 percent 23 62 13 47 28 25 16
               
Student/teacher ratio1,2              
Less than 12 27 63 19 65 40 35 10
12–16 28 64 18 68 43 38 11
More than 16 29 66 16 62 39 39 7
               
Number of classroom changes1              
0–3 changes 20 57 19 55 42 33 21
4–6 changes 28 65 21 64 40 41 9
More than 6 changes 29 63 17 68 42 36 7
               
Use of paid law enforcement3              
Regular use 30 65 20 68 43 40 7
No regular use 22 59 15 62 37 33 14
               
Number of serious discipline problems4              
No problems 19 53 13 55 34 30 16
1 problem 26 66 16 67 41 39 9
2 problems 29 67 18 74 38 33 4
3 or more problems 41 74 28 74 54 52 3
               
Transfers as percentage of enrollment1,5              
0 to 6 percent 25 57 19 56 38 36 12
6 to 11 percent 28 62 18 66 43 39 9
11 to 21 percent 29 71 16 73 42 38 6
21 percent or more 28 64 19 68 41 39 10
               
Prevalence of schoolwide disruptions1,6              
No disruptions 26 63 18 67 40 37 9
Any disruptions 31 65 20 63 45 41 7
               
Percent of students absent
without excuses
None 28 55 12 61 28 28 13
1–2 percent 21 62 18 65 41 39 8
3–5 percent 31 66 20 70 46 38 9
6–10 percent 34 73 22 69 53 50 8
More than 10 percent 50 63 29 54 32 32 8
               
Prevalence of violent incidents1,7
No violent incidents 17 48 12 45 26 28 19
Any violent incidents 29 66 19 69 44 40 7
1 Some schools are omitted from these categories because of missing data on their school characteristics. For this reason, the detailed results do not sum to the totals. See appendix J of 2000 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) Detailed Data Documentation (NCES 2004-307) for further information.
2 Student/teacher ratio was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the school by the total number of full-time equivalent teachers. The total number of full-time equivalent teachers is a combination of the full-time and part-time teachers, including special education teachers, with an adjustment to compensate for the part-time status.
3 Schools were included as regularly using paid law enforcement if they reported the use of paid law enforcement during any of the following times: at any time during school hours, while students were arriving or leaving, at selected school activities (e.g., athletic and social events, open houses, science fairs), or at any other time that the respondent specified.
4 Serious discipline problems is a count of discipline problems reported by principals. These discipline problems include student racial tensions, student bullying, student verbal abuse of teachers, widespread disorder in classrooms, and student acts of disrespect for teachers. If a principal reported that any of these problems occurred daily or weekly in their school, each was counted once in the total number of serious discipline problems. Undesirable gang activities and undesirable cult or extremist group activities were also counted once as a problem if the principal reported that these events occurred at all in their school.
5 Transfers as a percentage of enrollment combines the number of students who were transferred to a school and the number of students who were transferred from a school, divided by the total number of students enrolled in the school.
6 Schoolwide disruptions include actions that disrupted school activities such as bomb threats or anthrax threats. Respondents were instructed to exclude all fire alarms, including false alarms.
7 Violent incidents include rape, sexual battery other than rape, physical attack or fight with or without a weapon, threat of physical attack with or without a weapon, and robbery with or without a weapon.
NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. "At school/at your school" was defined for respondents as including activities happening in school buildings, on school grounds, on school buses, and at places that are holding school-sponsored events or activities. Respondents were instructed to, unless the survey specified otherwise, only respond for those times that were during normal school hours or when school activities/events were in session. A gang was defined for respondents as, "an ongoing loosely organized association of three or more persons, whether formal or informal, that has a common name, signs, symbols or colors, whose members engage, either individually or collectively, in violent or other forms of illegal behavior." Middle schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 4 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 9.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2000.


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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education