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Table 21.  Percentage of public elementary schools reporting the use of selected policies to prevent or reduce violence, by selected school characteristics: 1999–2000


School characteristic Training, supervision,
or technical assistance in classroom management
for teachers
Review, revision, or monitoring of school-wide discipline practices and procedures Training faculty or staff in crime prevention Reorganizing school, grades, or schedules1 Architectural environmental modifications Regularly used paid law enforcement2
All public elementary schools 67 89 31 20 29 37
             
Enrollment size            
Less than 300 57 86 31 11 27 22
300–499 69 89 29 17 27 36
500–999 71 92 32 31 33 46
1,000 or more79 94 33 9 32 57
             
Urbanicity            
City 77 94 43 29 31 53
Urban fringe 64 88 27 20 31 36
Town 72 93 30 23 33 30
Rural 60 86 23 12 25 26
             
Crime level where students live3            
High 86 95 48 41 30 62
Moderate 78 89 45 27 33 46
Low 63 88 25 16 28 30
Mixed 58 94 29 20 30 44
             
Percent minority enrollment3            
0–5 percent 65 86 26 13 26 23
6–20 percent 58 83 20 17 29 32
21–50 percent 65 92 37 22 33 29
More than 50 percent 77 95 40 29 31 57
             
Percent of students eligible for free/reduced-price lunch            
0–20 percent 61 91 16 13 25 28
21–50 percent 64 87 29 17 31 28
More than 50 percent 73 90 40 27 31 48
             
Percent of students below 15th percentile on standardized tests            
0–5 percent 69 91 30 22 29 33
6–15 percent 63 86 27 15 29 33
More than 15 percent 71 92 35 25 30 45
             
Percent of students likely to attend college            
0–35 percent 69 88 32 30 31 46
36–60 percent 65 90 31 16 29 33
More than 60 percent 68 90 29 16 28 32
             
Percent of students who consider academic achievement important            
0–25 percent 66 85 29 32 35 55
26–50 percent 64 90 28 16 28 34
51–75 percent 71 89 32 23 30 45
More than 75 percent 66 89 31 18 29 29
             
Percent male enrollment            
0–44 percent 76 89 32 26 28 43
45–55 percent 66 89 28 17 30 35
More than 55 percent 66 93 45 32 29 40
             
Student/teacher ratio3,4            
Less than 12 64 87 32 16 31 35
12–16 70 90 34 20 29 40
More than 16 67 92 26 23 30 39
             
Number of classroom changes3            
0–3 changes 69 89 36 24 28 36
4–6 changes 66 89 28 19 31 35
More than 6 changes 68 90 26 19 28 44
             
Use of paid law enforcement2            
Regular use 74 93 36 28 36 100
No regular use 63 87 27 16 25
             
Number of serious discipline problems5            
No problems 64 87 29 16 28 30
1 problem 75 93 30 24 33 51
2 problems 63 92 37 30 35 44
3 or more problems 82 94 39 39 30 56
             
Transfers as percentage of enrollment3,6            
0 to 6 percent 58 89 23 14 16 30
6 to 11 percent 75 88 37 21 29 36
11 to 21 percent 72 89 32 19 36 37
21 percent or more 64 90 32 24 33 40
             
Prevalence of schoolwide disruptions3,7            
No disruptions 67 89 31 20 30 38
Any disruptions 56 90 26 15 30 37
             
Percent of students absent
without excuses
           
None 62 85 21 14 22 30
1–2 percent 65 89 28 20 32 33
3–5 percent 76 93 39 26 32 41
6–10 percent 62 88 33 18 26 61
More than 10 percent 74 94 51 30 24 49
             
Prevalence of violent incidents3,8            
No violent incidents 66 87 35 18 26 33
Any violent incidents 68 91 28 22 32 39
† Not applicable.
1 For example, schools within a school, "houses" or "teams" of students.
2 Schools were included as regularly using paid law enforcement if they reported the use of paid law enforcement during any of the following times: at any time during school hours, while students were arriving or leaving, at selected school activities (e.g., athletic and social events, open houses, science fairs), or at any other time that the respondent specified.
3 Some schools are omitted from these categories because of missing data on their school characteristics. For this reason, the detailed results do not sum to the totals. See appendix J of 2000 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) Detailed Data Documentation (NCES 2004-307) for further information.
4 Student/teacher ratio was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the school by the total number of full-time equivalent teachers. The total number of full-time equivalent teachers is a combination of the full-time and part-time teachers, including special education teachers, with an adjustment to compensate for the part-time status.
5 Serious discipline problems is a count of discipline problems reported by principals. These discipline problems include student racial tensions, student bullying, student verbal abuse of teachers, widespread disorder in classrooms, and student acts of disrespect for teachers. If a principal reported that any of these problems occurred daily or weekly in their school, each was counted once in the total number of serious discipline problems. Undesirable gang activities and undesirable cult or extremist group activities were also counted once as a problem if the principal reported that these events occurred at all in their school.
6 Transfers as a percentage of enrollment combines the number of students who were transferred to a school and the number of students who were transferred from a school, divided by the total number of students enrolled in the school.
7 Schoolwide disruptions include actions that disrupted school activities such as bomb threats or anthrax threats. Respondents were instructed to exclude all fire alarms, including false alarms.
8 Violent incidents include rape, sexual battery other than rape, physical attack or fight with or without a weapon, threat of physical attack with or without a weapon, and robbery with or without a weapon.
NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. "At school/at your school" was defined for respondents as including activities happening in school buildings, on school grounds, on school buses, and at places that are holding school-sponsored events or activities. Respondents were instructed to, unless the survey specified otherwise, only respond for those times that were during normal school hours or when school activities/events were in session. A gang was defined for respondents as, "an ongoing loosely organized association of three or more persons, whether formal or informal, that has a common name, signs, symbols or colors, whose members engage, either individually or collectively, in violent or other forms of illegal behavior." Elementary schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not higher than grade 3 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 8.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2000.


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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education