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Table 264. Percentage of full-time instructional staff with tenure for degree-granting institutions with a tenure system, by academic rank, sex, and control and type of institution: Selected years, 1993-94 through 2007-08
Academic year, control and type of institution Percent with tenure
Total Professor Associate professor Assistant professor Instruc- tor Lec- turer No aca- demic rank
Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
1993-94                              
All institutions 56.2 62.6 42.7 91.9 92.8 87.7 76.8 77.5 75.1 14.4 13.6 15.5 38.3 10.8 26.0
Public institutions 58.9 65.4 45.6 92.6 93.6 87.5 80.8 81.6 78.9 17.1 16.1 18.5 45.5 7.2 28.6
4-year 56.3 63.5 39.3 94.3 94.7 92.0 80.4 81.2 78.4 13.8 13.0 14.8 4.4 5.4 6.1
Doctoral1 54.5 62.1 35.0 94.2 94.7 90.1 81.3 82.1 79.2 7.3 6.7 8.3 2.8 2.1 5.4
Master's2 60.5 67.7 46.1 95.4 95.5 95.0 79.3 80.0 77.7 23.0 23.0 22.9 6.4 11.7 11.0
Other 51.1 56.3 40.0 88.4 88.8 86.4 76.5 77.3 74.8 22.7 22.8 22.6 4.6 15.0 6.4
2-year 69.9 75.4 63.0 80.7 83.7 75.5 84.2 86.4 81.5 47.7 51.1 44.6 68.9 39.9 65.7
Not-for-profit institutions 49.5 56.0 35.5 90.3 90.8 88.1 67.6 68.1 66.5 9.0 8.7 9.4 6.1 21.9 18.9
4-year 49.5 56.0 35.4 90.3 90.8 88.0 67.6 68.1 66.5 9.0 8.7 9.4 5.5 21.6 15.7
Doctoral1 47.6 53.5 31.9 90.5 90.8 88.5 62.5 63.4 60.0 3.7 3.7 3.7 8.9 29.2 15.4
Master's2 51.8 59.2 38.2 90.8 91.1 89.8 71.3 72.2 69.6 13.4 13.6 13.1 2.6 0.7 10.5
Other 50.4 57.4 37.2 89.4 90.4 85.1 70.6 70.9 70.2 11.9 11.9 11.9 3.9 3.4 20.0
2-year 47.9 54.5 38.5 88.0 84.3 94.3 63.8 65.1 62.7 12.0 12.3 11.9 20.0 86.7 68.6
For-profit institutions 33.8 39.0 27.8 95.2 94.1 100.0 32.9
                             
1999-2000                              
All institutions 53.7 59.6 43.2 92.8 93.1 91.2 76.8 76.9 76.7 11.8 11.0 12.9 34.1 3.4 18.3
Public institutions 55.9 62.0 45.6 93.9 94.4 91.9 81.0 81.2 80.7 14.1 13.1 15.4 39.8 4.1 21.2
4-year 53.2 60.3 39.3 94.2 94.6 92.5 80.8 81.0 80.3 10.0 9.5 10.6 3.9 3.0 4.0
Doctoral1 50.4 58.0 34.5 92.9 93.6 89.3 79.9 80.2 79.4 4.7 4.4 5.2 2.1 1.5 1.4
Master's2 59.1 66.0 48.0 96.9 96.9 96.8 82.7 83.0 82.1 18.1 17.8 18.5 6.4 5.9 25.3
Other 54.7 61.2 43.2 94.9 95.1 94.0 80.7 81.3 79.7 21.8 24.1 18.8 5.8 7.2 49.3
2-year 67.7 70.6 64.5 91.2 92.2 89.7 83.3 83.6 83.1 53.8 56.0 52.0 60.4 21.2 64.4
Not-for-profit institutions 48.2 54.2 36.8 90.3 90.5 89.7 68.0 67.8 68.4 7.5 6.8 8.2 1.8 1.2 7.4
4-year 48.1 54.1 36.7 90.3 90.5 89.7 68.0 67.8 68.5 7.4 6.8 8.1 1.6 1.2 4.1
Doctoral1 43.4 49.6 29.6 88.6 88.7 87.6 62.6 62.8 62.2 3.0 2.8 3.2 1.0 1.3 0.5
Master's2 52.3 59.4 41.4 91.2 91.6 90.0 72.0 73.0 70.3 12.1 11.9 12.3 0.9 0.8 22.3
Other 53.5 59.3 44.0 93.5 93.8 92.8 73.1 71.2 76.0 9.9 9.4 10.5 3.6 1.6 23.5
2-year 59.7 63.3 53.6 96.0 96.0 96.0 57.1 61.3 54.3 31.6 36.7 28.3 30.2 65.8
For-profit institutions 77.4 77.2 77.6 47.4 50.0 33.3 86.1 71.9
                             
2005-06                              
All institutions 49.6 55.2 41.0 91.3 91.6 90.5 73.6 73.0 74.5 8.0 7.4 8.6 28.4 1.8 26.1
Public institutions 51.5 57.1 43.3 92.8 93.1 91.8 77.7 77.3 78.4 9.8 9.1 10.6 33.8 2.3 29.9
4-year 48.7 55.4 37.8 93.1 93.3 92.7 77.7 77.3 78.5 6.1 5.8 6.6 2.1 1.6 3.8
Doctoral1 47.2 54.2 34.5 91.6 92.0 90.1 75.9 75.7 76.4 2.7 2.6 2.8 1.2 1.3 2.1
Master's2 52.3 58.7 43.6 96.5 96.6 96.5 81.0 80.3 82.0 11.4 10.9 11.9 2.9 2.1 5.1
Other 49.1 54.0 42.2 95.4 95.0 96.2 82.6 83.0 81.9 17.6 18.3 16.8 4.9 2.3 34.3
2-year 64.1 67.2 61.2 89.5 90.7 88.2 77.9 77.8 77.9 44.1 46.8 41.8 56.2 22.4 70.3
Not-for-profit institutions 45.1 51.1 35.5 88.3 88.5 87.6 65.4 64.7 66.6 4.6 4.3 4.9 0.7 0.5 9.8
4-year 45.1 51.1 35.4 88.3 88.5 87.6 65.4 64.7 66.6 4.6 4.3 4.9 0.4 0.5 9.4
Doctoral1 40.7 47.2 28.3 86.2 86.7 84.1 57.7 57.5 58.1 1.8 1.8 1.8 0.2 0.3 1.8
Master's2 49.1 55.0 41.1 89.7 90.2 88.3 71.6 71.6 71.6 8.5 8.1 8.8 0.7 1.1 20.9
Other 52.5 57.8 44.8 92.7 92.3 93.9 74.5 73.5 75.9 5.5 5.4 5.6 0.7 1.5 45.7
2-year 45.2 50.0 41.2 86.3 91.7 81.5 69.7 92.9 52.6 15.4 8.6 20.9 34.5 50.0
For-profit institutions 69.3 67.1 72.5 70.3 65.6 100.0 78.9
                             
2007-08                              
All institutions 48.8 54.5 40.4 90.6 90.9 89.6 74.0 73.7 74.6 7.8 7.4 8.2 27.8 1.4 25.2
Public institutions 50.5 56.2 42.6 92.1 92.4 91.2 77.7 77.5 78.0 9.4 8.7 10.2 33.2 1.8 29.8
4-year 47.8 54.5 37.4 92.3 92.5 91.8 77.7 77.5 78.1 5.8 5.4 6.2 2.0 1.2 4.8
Doctoral1 46.1 53.2 33.9 90.6 91.0 89.2 75.0 74.8 75.3 2.2 2.0 2.5 1.1 0.7 1.1
Master's2 51.9 58.5 43.7 97.1 97.1 97.0 83.8 83.9 83.6 12.1 11.9 12.3 3.0 1.9 6.1
Other 49.1 53.5 43.2 92.2 93.5 89.8 81.3 81.8 80.5 16.3 17.1 15.4 5.1 3.1 41.6
2-year 63.6 66.7 60.7 89.7 91.1 88.3 77.6 77.9 77.4 45.3 48.7 42.6 56.2 21.8 68.1
Not-for-profit institutions 44.7 50.9 35.2 87.5 87.9 86.4 66.8 66.2 67.9 4.7 4.8 4.6 0.6 0.3 8.5
4-year 44.7 50.9 35.2 87.5 87.9 86.4 66.8 66.2 67.9 4.7 4.7 4.6 0.4 0.3 8.2
Doctoral1 40.1 46.9 28.5 84.9 85.6 82.2 59.4 59.4 59.2 2.8 2.8 2.7 0.2 0.2 1.9
Master's2 49.8 56.1 41.7 89.9 90.5 88.4 73.7 73.9 73.4 8.3 8.9 7.8 0.7 0.6 18.0
Other 52.7 58.2 44.9 93.2 93.0 93.8 77.2 75.2 80.0 5.0 5.2 4.9 1.0 1.4 41.5
2-year 41.3 46.4 37.4 92.5 96.2 85.7 60.0 61.5 59.5 17.9 14.3 20.4 17.8 51.6
For-profit institutions 51.3 58.0 42.1 77.4 77.8 76.5 23.7 35.3 8.0 16.0 23.8 10.3 77.9
—Not available.
‡Reporting standards not met.
1 Institutions that awarded 20 or more doctor's degrees during the previous academic year.
2 Institutions that awarded 20 or more master's degrees, but less than 20 doctor's degrees, during the previous academic year.
NOTE: The coverage of this table differs from similar tables published in editions of the Digest prior to 2003. Previous tenure tabulations included only instructional staff classified as full-time faculty; this table includes all staff with full-time instructional duties, including faculty and other instructional staff. Data for 1993-94 are for institutions of higher education, while later data are for degree-granting institutions. Degree-granting institutions grant associate’s or higher degrees and participate in Title IV federal financial aid programs. The degree-granting classification is very similar to the earlier higher education classification, but it includes more 2-year colleges and excludes a few higher education institutions that did not grant degrees. (See Appendix A: Guide to Sources for details.) Beginning in 2007-08, includes institutions with fewer than 15 full-time employees; institutions with fewer than 15 employees did not report staff data prior to 2007-08. Some data have been revised from previously published figures.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 1993-94 through 2007-08 Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System, "Fall Staff Survey" (IPEDS-S:93-99), Winter 2005-06, and Winter 2007-08. (This table was prepared July 2009.)
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