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Status and Trends in the Education of American Indians and Alaska Natives: 2008

NCES 2008-084
September 2008


Table 1.6c.  Percentage of American Indian/Alaska Native families living in poverty, by American Indian/Alaska Native Area: 1989 and 1999

American Indian/Alaska Native Area 1989 1999
All families 27.0 21.8
Reservations and off-reservation trust lands 47.3 35.7
Oklahoma tribal statistical areas 25.4 19.4
Alaska Native village statistical areas 25.0 20.8
Tribal designated statistical areas 26.7 19.0
State designated American Indian statistical areas 19.9
— Not available.
NOTE: Includes families with and without children under 18. Includes American Indians/Alaska Natives of Hispanic ethnicity. To define poverty, the Census Bureau utilizes a set of money income thresholds that vary by family size and composition. A family, along with each individual in it, is considered poor if the family’s total income is less than that family’s threshold. The poverty thresholds do not vary geographically and are updated annually for inflation using the Consumer Price Index. The official poverty definition counts money income before taxes and does not include capital gains and noncash benefits (such as public housing, Medicaid, and food stamps). The Census Bureau divides American Indian/Alaska Native Areas into several categories. Federal American Indian reservations are areas that have been set aside by the United States for the use of tribes, the exterior boundaries of which are defined in the final tribal treaties, agreements, executive orders, federal statutes, secretarial orders, or judicial determinations. State reservations are areas established by individual states for tribes recognized by the state. Off-reservation trust lands (both federal and state) are areas for which the United States holds title in trust for the benefit of a tribe or for an individual Indian. The Census Bureau recognizes and tabulates data for reservations and off-reservation trust lands because American Indian tribes have primary governmental authority over these lands. Oklahoma tribal statistical areas are statistical entities identified and delineated by the Census Bureau in consultation with federally recognized American Indian tribes in Oklahoma that do not currently have a reservation, but once had a reservation in that state. Alaska Native village statistical areas are statistical entities that represent the densely settled portion of Alaska Native villages, which constitute associations, bands, clans, communities, groups, tribes, or villages recognized pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1972. Tribal designated statistical areas are statistical entities identified and delineated for the Census Bureau by federally recognized American Indian tribes that do not currently have a federally recognized land base (reservation or off-reservation trust land). A tribal designated statistical area may not be located in more than one state, and it may not include area within any reservation, off-reservation, Oklahoma tribal, Alaska Native village, or state designated American Indian statistical areas. State designated American Indian statistical areas are entities for state recognized American Indian tribes that do not have a state recognized land base.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau, Decennial Census, 1990 and 2000.

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