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Table 419. Federal support and estimated federal tax expenditures for education, by category: Selected fiscal years, 1965 through 2012
[In millions of dollars]
Fiscal year Total
on-budget support,
off-budget support, and nonfederal funds generated by federal legislation
On-budget support1 Off-budget support and nonfederal funds generated by federal legislation Estimated federal tax expendi-
tures for educa-
tion2
Total Elemen-
tary and secondary
Post-
secondary
Other educa-
tion3
Research at educational institutions Total Off-budget
support
Nonfederal funds
Direct
Loan
Program4
Federal Family
Education Loan
Program5
Perkins
Loans6
Income
Contingent
Loans7
Leveraging
Educational
Assistance
Partner-
ships8
Supplemental
Educational
Opportunity
Grants9
Work-Study
Aid10
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
  Current dollars
1965 $5,354.7 $5,331.0 $1,942.6 $1,197.5 $374.7 $1,816.3   $23.7 $16.1 $7.6
1970 13,359.1 12,526.5 5,830.4 3,447.7 964.7 2,283.6   832.6 $770.0 21.0 41.6
1975 24,691.5 23,288.1 10,617.2 7,644.0 1,608.5 3,418.4   1,403.4 1,233.0 35.7 $20.0 114.7 $8,605.0
1980 39,349.5 34,493.5 16,027.7 11,115.9 1,548.7 5,801.2   4,856.0 4,598.0 31.8 76.8 149.4 13,320.0
                                 
1985 47,753.4 39,027.9 16,901.3 11,174.4 2,107.6 8,844.6   8,725.5 8,467.0 21.4 76.0 161.1 19,105.0
1986 48,357.3 39,962.9 17,049.9 11,283.6 2,620.0 9,009.4   8,394.4 8,142.0 20.2 72.7 159.5 20,425.0
1987 50,724.6 41,194.7 17,535.7 10,300.0 2,820.4 10,538.6   9,529.8 9,272.0 20.9 $0.6 76.0 160.4 20,830.0
1988 54,078.7 43,454.4 18,564.9 10,657.5 2,981.6 11,250.5   10,624.3 10,380.0 20.6 0.5 72.8 150.4 17,025.0
1989 59,537.4 48,269.6 19,809.5 13,269.9 3,180.3 12,009.8   11,267.8 10,938.0 20.4 0.5 71.9 $22.0 215.0 17,755.0
                                 
1990 62,811.5 51,624.3 21,984.4 13,650.9 3,383.0 12,606.0   11,187.2 10,826.0 15.0 0.5 59.2 48.8 237.7 19,040.0
1991 70,375.6 57,599.5 25,418.0 14,707.4 3,698.6 13,775.4   12,776.1 12,372.0 17.3 0.5 63.5 87.7 235.0 18,995.0
1992 74,481.1 60,483.1 27,926.9 14,387.4 3,992.0 14,176.9   13,998.0 13,568.0 17.3 0.5 72.0 97.2 242.9 19,950.0
1993 84,741.5 67,740.6 30,834.3 17,844.0 4,107.2 14,955.1   17,000.8 16,524.0 29.3 72.4 184.6 190.5 21,010.0
1994 92,781.5 68,254.2 32,304.4 16,177.1 4,483.7 15,289.1   24,527.3 $813.0 23,214.0 52.7 72.4 184.6 190.5 22,630.0
                                 
1995 95,810.8 71,639.5 33,623.8 17,618.1 4,719.7 15,677.9   24,171.2 5,161.0 18,519.0 52.7 63.4 184.6 190.5 24,600.0
1996 96,833.0 71,327.4 34,391.5 15,775.5 4,828.0 16,332.3   25,505.6 8,357.0 16,711.0 31.1 31.4 184.6 190.5 26,340.0
1997 103,259.8 73,731.8 35,478.9 15,959.4 5,021.2 17,272.4   29,528.0 9,838.0 19,163.0 52.7 50.0 184.6 239.7 28,125.0
1998 107,810.5 76,909.2 37,486.2 15,799.6 5,148.5 18,475.0   30,901.3 10,400.1 20,002.5 45.0 25.0 194.3 234.4 29,540.0
1999 113,417.2 82,863.6 39,937.9 17,651.2 5,318.0 19,956.5   30,553.6 9,953.0 20,107.0 33.3 25.0 195.9 239.4 37,360.0
                                 
2000 119,541.6 85,944.2 43,790.8 15,008.7 5,484.6 21,660.1   33,597.4 10,347.0 22,711.0 33.3 50.0 199.7 256.4 39,475.0
2001 130,668.5 94,846.5 48,530.1 14,938.3 5,880.0 25,498.1   35,822.0 10,635.0 24,694.0 25.0 80.0 184.0 204.0 41,460.0
2002 150,034.5 109,211.5 52,754.1 22,964.2 6,297.7 27,195.5   40,823.0 11,689.0 28,606.0 25.0 104.0 192.0 207.0
2003 170,671.5 124,374.5 59,274.2 29,499.7 6,532.5 29,068.1   46,297.0 11,969.0 33,791.0 33.0 103.0 202.0 199.0
2004 185,176.7 132,420.7 62,653.2 32,433.0 6,576.8 30,757.7   52,756.0 12,840.0 39,266.0 33.0 102.0 244.0 271.0
                                 
2005 203,036.0 146,207.0 68,957.7 38,587.3 6,908.5 31,753.5   56,829.0 12,930.0 43,284.0 0.0 101.0 246.0 268.0
2006 226,978.7 166,495.7 70,948.2 57,757.7 7,074.5 30,715.2   60,483.0 12,677.0 47,307.0 0.0 100.0 205.0 194.0
2007 210,536.0 145,698.0 70,735.9 37,465.3 7,214.9 30,281.9   64,838.0 13,022.0 51,320.0 0.0 100.0 205.0 191.0
2008 221,001.1 145,003.1 71,927.9 36,395.2 7,882.2 28,797.8   75,998.0 18,213.0 57,296.0 0.0 98.0 201.0 190.0
200911 357,786.9 260,734.9 162,109.1 53,074.4 8,853.7 36,697.7   97,052.0 29,738.0 66,778.0 0.0 98.0 201.0 237.0
                                 
2010 288,121.2 183,311.2 87,423.9 50,166.3 9,326.7 36,394.3 12 104,810.0 84,703.0 19,618.0 0.0 98.0 201.0 190.0
2011 294,516.1 185,209.8 76,902.3 64,517.8 11,020.2 32,769.4 12 109,306.3 108,926.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 195.0 185.0
201212 78,980.6 69,940.2 9,561.9   121,202.0 120,822.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 195.0 185.0
  Constant fiscal year 2012 dollars13
1965 $39,029.1 $38,856.2 $14,158.9 $8,728.3 $2,730.7 $13,238.3   $172.8 $117.4 $55.4
1970 79,235.7 74,297.5 34,581.7 20,449.1 5,722.0 13,544.8   4,938.2 $4,567.0 124.4 246.7
1975 100,944.6 95,207.3 43,405.6 31,250.6 6,575.8 13,975.3   5,737.3 5,040.8 145.8 $81.8 468.9 $35,179.3
1980 107,643.9 94,360.0 43,845.1 30,408.5 4,236.7 15,869.7   13,284.0 12,578.2 86.9 210.1 408.7 36,438.0
                                 
1985 96,116.9 78,554.4 34,018.6 22,491.5 4,242.1 17,802.2   17,562.5 17,042.2 43.0 153.0 324.3 38,454.1
1986 94,875.7 78,406.1 33,451.5 22,138.1 5,140.4 17,676.1   16,469.6 15,974.4 39.6 142.6 312.9 40,073.3
1987 96,460.8 78,338.3 33,346.9 19,587.1 5,363.4 20,040.8   18,122.5 17,632.2 39.7 $1.1 144.5 305.0 39,611.5
1988 99,834.4 80,220.9 34,272.5 19,674.8 5,504.3 20,769.4   19,613.5 19,162.5 38.1 0.9 134.4 277.7 31,429.7
1989 105,986.8 85,928.1 35,264.4 23,622.7 5,661.5 21,379.6   20,058.7 19,471.5 36.3 1.0 128.0 $39.2 382.7 31,606.9
                                 
1990 108,465.1 89,146.7 37,963.3 23,572.9 5,841.9 21,768.5   19,318.4 18,694.7 25.9 0.9 102.2 84.3 410.5 32,878.9
1991 116,048.5 94,980.9 41,914.0 24,252.3 6,099.0 22,715.5   21,067.6 20,401.3 28.6 0.8 104.8 144.6 387.5 31,322.5
1992 118,294.7 96,062.3 44,354.9 22,850.8 6,340.2 22,516.4   22,232.4 21,549.4 27.5 0.9 114.4 154.5 385.8 31,685.6
1993 131,049.8 104,758.6 47,684.2 27,595.2 6,351.6 23,127.5   26,291.2 25,553.8 45.2 112.0 285.5 294.7 32,491.3
1994 140,865.2 103,626.8 49,046.0 24,560.8 6,807.4 23,212.6   37,238.4 $1,234.3 35,244.6 80.0 110.0 280.3 289.3 34,357.9
                                 
1995 141,589.0 105,868.8 49,689.2 26,036.1 6,974.7 23,168.8   35,720.2 7,626.9 27,367.4 77.8 93.7 272.8 281.6 36,353.8
1996 139,743.7 102,935.5 49,631.8 22,766.3 6,967.5 23,569.8   36,808.2 12,060.3 24,116.3 44.9 45.3 266.4 274.9 38,012.3
1997 145,952.3 104,216.0 50,147.5 22,557.8 7,097.1 24,413.5   41,736.3 13,905.5 27,085.9 74.5 70.7 260.9 338.8 39,753.2
1998 150,939.9 107,676.6 52,482.4 22,120.1 7,208.1 25,865.9   43,263.3 14,560.6 28,004.4 63.0 35.0 272.0 328.2 41,357.4
1999 156,581.5 114,399.8 55,137.5 24,368.9 7,341.9 27,551.5   42,181.7 13,740.9 27,759.3 46.0 34.5 270.5 330.5 51,578.5
                                 
2000 161,047.2 115,784.6 58,995.2 20,219.8 7,388.8 29,180.7   45,262.6 13,939.5 30,596.4 44.9 67.4 269.0 345.4 53,181.0
2001 171,691.3 124,623.1 63,765.9 19,628.1 7,726.0 33,503.2   47,068.2 13,973.8 32,446.6 32.8 105.1 241.8 268.0 54,476.2
2002 193,987.5 141,205.3 68,208.6 29,691.6 8,142.6 35,162.5   52,782.2 15,113.3 36,986.2 32.3 134.5 248.2 267.6
2003 215,022.8 156,694.9 74,677.4 37,165.6 8,230.1 36,621.8   58,327.9 15,079.3 42,572.0 41.6 129.8 254.5 250.7
2004 226,839.1 162,213.6 76,749.4 39,730.0 8,056.5 37,677.8   64,625.4 15,728.8 48,100.3 40.4 124.9 298.9 332.0
                                 
2005 239,887.0 172,743.6 81,473.5 45,590.9 8,162.4 37,516.8   67,143.5 15,276.8 51,140.0 0.0 119.3 290.6 316.6
2006 259,006.5 189,989.0 80,959.4 65,907.6 8,072.7 35,049.3   69,017.4 14,465.8 53,982.2 0.0 114.1 233.9 221.4
2007 233,742.0 161,757.4 78,532.6 41,594.8 8,010.2 33,619.7   71,984.7 14,457.3 56,976.7 0.0 111.0 227.6 212.1
2008 236,708.2 155,308.8 77,039.9 38,981.9 8,442.4 30,844.5   81,399.4 19,507.4 61,368.2 0.0 105.0 215.3 203.5
200911 381,348.8 277,905.5 172,784.8 56,569.6 9,436.8 39,114.4   103,443.3 31,696.4 71,175.6 0.0 104.5 214.2 252.6
                                 
2010 303,454.5 193,066.7 92,076.4 52,836.1 9,823.1 38,331.1 12 110,387.8 89,210.7 20,662.0 0.0 103.2 211.7 200.1
2011 301,926.9 189,870.1 78,837.4 66,141.3 11,297.5 33,594.0 12 112,056.7 111,667.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 199.9 189.7
201212 78,980.6 69,940.2 9,561.9   121,202.0 120,822.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 195.0 185.0
—Not available.
†Not applicable.
1 On-budget support includes federal funds for education programs tied to appropriations. Excludes federal support for medical education benefits under Medicare in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Benefits excluded because data before fiscal year (FY) 1990 are not available. This program existed since Medicare began, but was not available as a separate budget item until FY 1990. Excluded amounts range from $4,440,000,000 in FY 1990 to an estimated $9,700,000,000 in FY 2012.
2 Losses of tax revenue attributable to provisions of the federal income tax laws that allow a special exclusion, exemption, or deduction from gross income or provide a special credit, preferential rate of tax, or a deferral of tax liability affecting individual or corporate income tax liabilities.
3 Other education includes libraries, museums, cultural activities, and miscellaneous research.
4 The William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program (commonly referred to as the Direct Loan Program) provides students with the same benefits they were eligible to receive under the Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL) Program, but provides loans to students through federal capital rather than through private lenders.
5 The Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL) Program, formerly known as the Guaranteed Student Loan Program, provided student loans guaranteed by the federal government and disbursed to borrowers. After June 30, 2010, no new FFEL loans have been originated; all new loans are originated through the Direct Loan Program.
6 Student loans created from institutional matching funds (since 1993 one-third of federal capital contributions). Excludes repayments of outstanding loans.
7 Student loans created from institutional matching funds (one-ninth of the federal contribution). This was a demonstration project that involved only 10 institutions and had unsubsidized interest rates. Program repealed in fiscal year 1992.
8 Formerly the State Student Incentive Grant Program. Starting in fiscal year 2000, amounts under $30.0 million have required dollar-for-dollar state matching contributions, while amounts over $30.0 million have required two-to-one state matching contributions.
9 Institutions award grants to undergraduate students, and the federal share of such grants may not exceed 75 percent of the total grant.
10 Employer contributions to student earnings are generally one-third of federal allocation.
11 All education funds from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) are included in the FY 2009 row of this table. Most of these funds had a 2-year availability, meaning that they were available for the Department of Education to obligate during FY 2009 and FY 2010.
12 Estimated.
13 Data adjusted by the federal funds composite deflator reported in the U.S. Office of Management and Budget, Budget of the U.S. Government, Historical Tables, Fiscal Year 2013.
NOTE: To the extent possible, federal education funds data represent outlays rather than obligations. Some data have been revised from previously published figures. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. The increase in postsecondary expenditures in 2006 resulted primarily from an accounting adjustment.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Budget Service, unpublished tabulations. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, unpublished tabulations. U.S. Office of Management and Budget, Budget of the U.S. Government, Appendix, fiscal years 1967 through 2013. National Science Foundation, Federal Funds for Research and Development, fiscal years 1967 through 2011. (This table was prepared October 2012.)
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