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Table 132. Percentage of children demonstrating specific cognitive and motor skills at about 9 months of age, by child's age and selected characteristics: 2001-02
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]
Age and selected characteristic Number of children (in thousands) Percentage distribu-
tion of children
Percent of children who demonstrate skills1
Specific cognitive skills Specific motor skills
Explores objects2 Explores purpose-
fully3
Jabbers expres-
sively4
Early problem solving5 Names objects6 Eye-hand coordi-
nation7
Sitting8 Pre-
walking9
Stands alone10 Skillful walking11 Balance12
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
8 through 10 months                                                      
Total 2,882 (39.1) 100.0 (†) 98.6 (0.06) 83.2 (0.54) 29.6 (0.57) 3.7 (0.13) 0.6 (0.03) 89.1 (0.26) 86.8 (0.24) 64.7 (0.60) 18.6 (0.50) 8.4 (0.21) 1.7   (0.09)
Sex of child                                                      
Male 1,460 (23.0) 50.7 (0.38) 98.6 (0.06) 82.7 (0.51) 28.8 (0.56) 3.5 (0.14) 0.6 (0.03) 89.3 (0.30) 87.0 (0.27) 65.1 (0.69) 18.5 (0.55) 8.3 (0.23) 1.7   (0.10)
Female 1,422 (22.0) 49.3 (0.38) 98.7 (0.09) 83.8 (0.68) 30.4 (0.71) 3.9 (0.18) 0.7 (0.05) 88.9 (0.36) 86.6 (0.33) 64.4 (0.78) 18.7 (0.67) 8.4 (0.29) 1.8   (0.14)
                                                       
Race/ethnicity of child                                                      
White 1,569 (29.2) 54.5 (0.63) 98.8 (0.07) 84.0 (0.69) 30.4 (0.72) 3.9 (0.17) 0.7 (0.04) 88.8 (0.37) 86.5 (0.33) 63.8 (0.81) 18.0 (0.66) 8.1 (0.27) 1.6   (0.10)
Black 381 (11.1) 13.3 (0.38) 98.1 (0.16) 80.8 (0.92) 27.8 (0.99) 3.3 (0.25) 0.6 (0.07) 91.0 (0.33) 88.6 (0.32) 69.7 (0.94) 22.8 (1.15) 10.4 (0.58) 2.6   (0.35)
Hispanic 717 (18.5) 24.9 (0.54) 98.5 (0.13) 82.9 (0.82) 29.0 (0.84) 3.4 (0.21) 0.6 (0.05) 88.4 (0.47) 86.1 (0.43) 63.4 (1.00) 17.0 (0.77) 7.8 (0.32) 1.6   (0.15)
Asian 79 (3.1) 2.7 (0.10) 98.8 (0.13) 83.3 (0.96) 28.2 (0.92) 3.1 (0.20) 0.5 (0.04) 89.5 (0.53) 87.1 (0.49) 65.2 (1.21) 18.2 (1.00) 8.2 (0.39) 1.6   (0.14)
Pacific Islander 6 (1.5) 0.2 (0.05) 98.9 (0.23) 81.8 (3.58) 23.8 (3.22) 2.0 (0.47) 0.3 (0.07) 95.4 (0.97) 93.0 (1.13) 79.9 (3.81) 34.8 (8.69) 15.1 (3.90) 3.9 ! (1.67)
American Indian/Alaska Native 10 (1.1) 0.4 (0.04) 98.4 (0.30) 80.3 (2.72) 27.2 (2.49) 3.4 (0.70) 0.6 (0.18) 90.2 (0.99) 87.8 (0.91) 66.8 (2.15) 19.6 (2.08) 8.4 (0.80) 1.5   (0.29)
Two or more races 115 (9.8) 4.0 (0.33) 98.6 (0.14) 83.0 (1.24) 29.8 (1.51) 3.9 (0.55) 0.8 (0.21) 90.0 (0.94) 87.8 (0.87) 67.7 (2.20) 22.1 (2.03) 9.6 (0.79) 2.0   (0.30)
                                                       
Months of age                                                      
8 months 642 (32.8) 29.5 (0.90) 97.5 (0.14) 67.9 (1.04) 15.7 (0.53) 1.1 (0.09) 0.1 (0.02) 84.0 (0.52) 82.0 (0.46) 52.7 (1.08) 8.8 (0.63) 4.5 (0.22) 0.5   (0.05)
9 months 1,389 (28.2) 22.3 (0.99) 98.7 (0.06) 84.5 (0.43) 27.5 (0.44) 2.7 (0.09) 0.4 (0.02) 89.1 (0.32) 86.7 (0.30) 64.2 (0.74) 16.1 (0.55) 7.2 (0.21) 1.2   (0.07)
10 months 851 (24.2) 48.2 (0.76) 99.3 (0.07) 92.7 (0.33) 43.5 (0.74) 7.1 (0.27) 1.4 (0.08) 92.8 (0.26) 90.5 (0.25) 74.6 (0.63) 30.1 (0.85) 13.3 (0.42) 3.6   (0.25)
                                                       
Primary type of nonparental care                                                      
arrangement13                                                      
No regular nonparental                                                      
arrangement 1,459 (28.0) 50.7 (0.90) 98.5 (0.09) 82.4 (0.59) 28.7 (0.55) 3.4 (0.14) 0.6 (0.04) 88.2 (0.34) 86.0 (0.30) 63.1 (0.70) 17.7 (0.52) 8.0 (0.22) 1.6   (0.10)
Home-based care                                                      
Relative care14 759 (27.1) 26.4 (0.81) 98.8 (0.08) 84.3 (0.67) 30.6 (0.79) 3.9 (0.22) 0.7 (0.06) 90.3 (0.35) 87.9 (0.33) 67.3 (0.84) 20.4 (0.81) 9.2 (0.38) 2.0   (0.19)
Nonrelative care15 430 (17.1) 14.9 (0.53) 98.8 (0.08) 84.7 (0.80) 31.3 (1.00) 4.3 (0.29) 0.8 (0.08) 90.0 (0.45) 87.6 (0.45) 66.1 (1.14) 19.3 (1.35) 8.7 (0.58) 1.8   (0.23)
Center-based care16 211 (13.9) 7.3 (0.48) 98.6 (0.19) 82.8 (1.43) 29.3 (1.54) 3.5 (0.39) 0.6 (0.09) 89.0 (0.77) 86.7 (0.71) 64.0 (1.72) 18.0 (1.51) 8.3 (0.66) 1.9   (0.32)
Multiple arrangements17 19 (4.0) 0.7 (0.14) 98.1 (0.36) 77.5 (3.54) 24.8 (3.12) 2.8 (0.65) 0.4 (0.12) 86.8 (2.89) 84.6 (2.55) 61.8 (5.09) 14.4 (2.71) 6.4 (0.94) 0.9   (0.19)
                                                       
Parents' highest level                                                      
of education                                                      
Less than high school 388 (12.4) 13.5 (0.42) 98.4 (0.11) 80.0 (0.87) 25.9 (0.79) 2.8 (0.20) 0.5 (0.06) 88.9 (0.62) 86.5 (0.58) 64.4 (1.20) 17.3 (0.96) 8.0 (0.42) 1.7   (0.20)
High school completion 702 (19.8) 24.4 (0.60) 98.4 (0.13) 82.6 (0.89) 29.2 (0.81) 3.6 (0.21) 0.7 (0.06) 89.6 (0.45) 87.3 (0.42) 66.8 (0.91) 20.6 (0.84) 9.1 (0.36) 1.9   (0.17)
Some college/vocational 847 (24.8) 29.4 (0.68) 98.7 (0.08) 84.4 (0.60) 30.8 (0.69) 3.9 (0.20) 0.7 (0.05) 90.0 (0.35) 87.7 (0.33) 66.7 (0.84) 20.8 (0.82) 9.3 (0.35) 2.0   (0.16)
Bachelor's degree 497 (16.2) 17.3 (0.54) 98.8 (0.07) 83.9 (0.60) 30.2 (0.71) 3.8 (0.20) 0.7 (0.05) 88.4 (0.46) 86.1 (0.41) 62.5 (1.05) 16.3 (0.85) 7.4 (0.34) 1.4   (0.12)
Any graduate education 446 (15.7) 15.5 (0.52) 98.8 (0.11) 84.0 (0.94) 30.4 (0.88) 3.8 (0.22) 0.7 (0.06) 87.5 (0.58) 85.4 (0.52) 60.5 (1.23) 15.2 (0.91) 7.0 (0.40) 1.4   (0.18)
                                                       
Poverty status18                                                      
Below poverty threshold 682 (23.0) 23.7 (0.74) 98.3 (0.14) 80.9 (0.75) 27.1 (0.79) 3.1 (0.21) 0.5 (0.05) 89.1 (0.47) 86.8 (0.43) 65.5 (0.98) 19.2 (0.86) 8.7 (0.42) 1.9   (0.24)
At or above poverty threshold 2,200 (37.2) 76.3 (0.74) 98.7 (0.07) 84.0 (0.58) 30.4 (0.63) 3.8 (0.15) 0.7 (0.04) 89.1 (0.27) 86.8 (0.25) 64.5 (0.66) 18.4 (0.56) 8.3 (0.23) 1.7   (0.10)
                                                       
Socioeconomic status19                                                      
Lowest 20 percent 557 (16.8) 19.3 (0.58) 98.3 (0.13) 80.7 (0.72) 26.8 (0.69) 3.0 (0.17) 0.5 (0.04) 89.1 (0.46) 86.7 (0.43) 65.4 (0.90) 18.8 (0.83) 8.5 (0.35) 1.8   (0.18)
Middle 60 percent 1,719 (38.2) 59.7 (0.83) 98.6 (0.08) 83.5 (0.63) 30.2 (0.67) 3.8 (0.18) 0.7 (0.05) 89.5 (0.30) 87.2 (0.28) 65.6 (0.73) 19.6 (0.67) 8.8 (0.28) 1.9   (0.11)
Highest 20 percent 606 (18.4) 21.0 (0.63) 98.8 (0.09) 84.8 (0.73) 30.5 (0.79) 3.8 (0.18) 0.6 (0.04) 88.0 (0.45) 85.8 (0.40) 61.5 (0.96) 15.6 (0.66) 7.1 (0.28) 1.3   (0.13)
                                                       
11 through 13 months                                                      
Total 839 (32.2) 100.0 (†) 99.7 (0.05) 97.3 (0.15) 67.9 (0.54) 22.5 (0.55) 8.2 (0.37) 97.1 (0.17) 95.6 (0.19) 89.0 (0.54) 62.5 (1.29) 34.9 (0.95) 19.1   (0.84)
Months of age                                                      
11 months 425 (19.6) 50.6 (1.54) 99.5 (0.10) 95.8 (0.28) 57.6 (0.77) 14.2 (0.59) 4.0 (0.33) 95.8 (0.28) 93.9 (0.29) 84.4 (0.86) 49.0 (1.74) 24.3 (1.05) 10.5   (0.77)
12 months 251 (14.8) 30.0 (1.29) 99.8 (0.03) 98.4 (0.13) 74.3 (0.83) 26.9 (0.94) 10.2 (0.65) 98.1 (0.21) 96.8 (0.26) 92.6 (0.71) 70.9 (2.09) 40.2 (1.65) 22.9   (1.50)
13 months 163 (12.1) 19.4 (1.16) 100.0 (†) 99.5 (0.08) 85.0 (0.62) 37.7 (1.04) 16.0 (0.87) 99.0 (0.27) 98.2 (0.30) 95.8 (0.85) 84.8 (2.24) 54.4 (1.81) 36.0   (1.83)
                                                       
14 through 22 months 260 (19.7) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 99.5 (0.14) 90.0 (0.60) 58.4 (1.44) 40.8 (1.71) 99.5 (0.12) 99.1 (0.13) 98.3 (0.28) 94.1 (0.91) 74.0 (1.35) 61.7   (1.82)
†Not applicable.
!Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent.
1 Based on assessments collected using the Bayley Short Form Research Edition (BSF-R), a shortened field method of administering the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II (BSID-II) (Bayley 1993). The scores are fully equated with the BSID-II; for more information, see NCES's Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS–B) Psychometric Report for the 2-year Data Collection. The proficiency probabilities indicate mastery of a specific skill or ability within cognitive or physical domains.
2 Ability to explore objects, for example, reaching for and holding objects. The child may have no specific purpose except to play or discover.
3 Ability to explore objects with a purpose, such as to explore a bell to understand the source of the sound.
4 Measures proficiency in communication through diverse nonverbal sounds and gestures, such as vowel and vowel-consonant sounds.
5 Measures proficiency in engaging in early problem solving, such as using a tool to reach an out-of-reach toy or locating a hidden toy.
6 Measures proficiency in early communication skills, such as saying simple words like "mama" and "dada."
7 Measures proficiency in being able to use visual tracking to guide hand movements to pick up a small object.
8 Measures proficiency in ability to maintain control of the muscles used in sitting with and without support.
9 Measures proficiency in ability to engage in various prewalking types of mobility, with and without support, such as shifting weight from one foot to the other.
10 Measures proficiency in ability to walk with help and to stand independently.
11 Measures proficiency in being able to walk independently.
12 Measures proficiency in ability to maintain balance while changing position.
13 The type of nonparental care in which the child spent the most hours.
14 Care provided in the child's home or in another private home by a relative (excluding parents).
15 Care provided in the child's home or in another private home by a person unrelated to the child.
16 Care provided in places such as early learning centers, nursery schools, and preschools.
17 Children who spent an equal amount of time in each of two or more types of arrangements.
18 Poverty status based on Census Bureau guidelines from 2002, which identify a dollar amount determined to meet a household's needs, given its size and composition. In 2002, a family of four was considered to live below the poverty threshold if its income was less than or equal to $18,392.
19 Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured by a composite score based on parental education and occupations, and family income.
NOTE: Estimates weighted by W1C0. This table is based on a survey that sampled children born in 2001 and was designed to collect information about them for the first time when the children were about 9 months of age (i.e., 8 to 10 months). As shown in the table, some children were older than this at the time data were collected, although only 6.5 percent were over 13 months of age. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding and survey item nonresponse. Some data have been revised from previously published figures.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort 9-month–Kindergarten 2007 Restricted-Use Data File and Electronic Codebook. (This table was prepared December 2010.)
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