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Table 89. Number, highest degree, experience, and salaries of principals in public and private elementary and secondary schools, by selected characteristics: 1993-94, 2003-04, and 2007-08
Characteristic Number of principals1  Percentage distribution by highest degree earned, 2007-08 Average years of experience Average annual salary
in constant 2008-09 dollars2 
1993-94 2003-04 2007-08 Bachelor's or less Master's Education specialist3  Doctor's and first-professional As a principal Teaching experience, 2007-08 1993-94 2003-04 2007-08
1993-94 2003-04 2007-08
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Public schools                                                                      
Total 79,620   (235) 87,620 (307) 90,470   (544) 1.5   (0.23) 61.1 (1.01) 29.0   (0.97) 8.4   (0.57) 8.7   (0.10) 7.8 (0.10) 7.5 (0.14) 13.1 (0.14) $80,500   (190) $87,100 (210) $86,900 (390)
                                                                       
Sex                                                                      
Males 52,110   (613) 45,930 (707) 44,950   (1,129) 1.5   (0.36) 64.0 (1.64) 26.8   (1.49) 7.7   (0.78) 10.3   (0.16) 9.1 (0.16) 8.2 (0.20) 12.0 (0.21) 80,600   (230) 87,200 (330) 87,300 (670)
Females 27,500   (542) 41,690 (708) 45,520   (1,129) 1.5   (0.34) 58.1 (1.29) 31.2   (1.42) 9.2   (0.73) 5.6   (0.12) 6.3 (0.13) 6.8 (0.19) 14.3 (0.21) 80,400   (400) 86,900 (390) 86,600 (630)
                                                                       
Race/ethnicity                                                                      
White 67,080   (540) 72,200 (509) 73,160   (1,008) 1.5   (0.30) 60.4 (1.11) 30.2   (1.05) 8.0   (0.57) 9.0   (0.12) 8.0 (0.12) 7.8 (0.17) 13.2 (0.17) 80,000   (200) 86,600 (260) 86,000 (450)
Black 8,020   (351) 9,250 (377) 9,620   (659)   (†) 56.3 (3.45) 29.6   (3.12) 13.4   (1.98) 7.1   (0.21) 6.9 (0.33) 6.2 (0.38) 13.0 (0.50) 84,700   (670) 89,200 (770) 89,100 (1,310)
Hispanic 3,270   (258) 4,680 (355) 5,870   (540)   (†) 73.8 (4.06) 17.5   (4.22) 6.4 ! (2.03) 6.3   (0.37) 6.1 (0.43) 6.5 (0.62) 12.2 (0.71) 82,000   (1,170) 91,600 (1,580) 94,200 (2,690)
Asian 620 4  (109) 460 (87) 570   (146)   (†) 64.5 (12.62) 27.2 ! (13.24)   (†) 6.0 4  (0.60) 6.8 (1.17) 6.3 (0.97) 12.8 (1.48) 87,300 4  (2,090) 95,300 (1,930) 104,900 (6,760)
Native Hawaiian/
Pacific Islander
---   (†) (†)   (†)   (†) (†)   (†)   (†) ---   (†) (†) (†) (†) ---   (†) (†) (†)
American Indian/
Alaska Native
630   (67) 600 (80) 620   (179)   (†) 69.2 (9.56) 21.4 ! (7.71)   (†) 12.6   (0.67) 6.9 (0.63) 6.4 (1.30) 13.9 (2.80) 75,000   (2,550) 71,500 (2,450) 77,700 (3,340)
Two or more races ---   (†) 350 (82) 490 ! (155)   (†) 76.6 (11.09)   (†)   (†) ---   (†) 5.6 (1.12) 5.8 (1.50) 12.9 (2.38) ---   (†) 87,400 (4,340) 82,800 (5,700)
                                                                       
Age                                                                      
Under 40 5,940   (273) 12,840 (477) 17,290   (785) 2.9   (0.76) 65.9 (2.39) 25.2   (2.18) 6.0   (1.11) 2.8   (0.13) 2.4 (0.10) 2.9 (0.14) 7.6 (0.14) 68,300   (690) 79,400 (630) 80,600 (920)
40 to 44 14,570   (496) 9,540 (449) 13,330   (706)   (†) 63.2 (2.62) 28.8   (2.40) 6.5   (1.47) 5.0   (0.12) 4.5 (0.18) 4.8 (0.22) 10.7 (0.29) 76,400   (570) 83,400 (760) 84,900 (1,130)
45 to 49 25,430   (429) 16,120 (526) 13,690   (767) 1.3 ! (0.59) 59.4 (2.71) 31.6   (2.67) 7.7   (1.36) 7.1   (0.13) 6.1 (0.16) 6.1 (0.26) 13.0 (0.33) 81,400   (380) 84,500 (610) 86,000 (970)
50 to 54 18,870   (539) 24,170 (669) 17,570   (746)   (†) 60.7 (2.23) 28.5   (1.98) 10.1   (1.26) 10.3   (0.18) 8.7 (0.19) 8.2 (0.28) 15.2 (0.31) 83,000   (540) 88,900 (500) 88,100 (930)
55 or over 14,820   (441) 24,960 (679) 28,590   (1,000) 1.1 ! (0.46) 58.2 (1.81) 30.6   (1.91) 10.1   (1.02) 15.1   (0.35) 11.9 (0.23) 11.8 (0.29) 16.4 (0.37) 84,900   (730) 92,400 (550) 91,500 (950)
                                                                       
Type of school                                                                      
Elementary 53,680   (294) 61,480 (361) 62,340   (584) 1.2   (0.27) 61.3 (1.36) 29.1   (1.28) 8.3   (0.66) 8.9   (0.14) 7.9 (0.13) 7.7 (0.17) 13.3 (0.20) 79,500   (250) 87,000 (260) 86,400 (500)
Secondary 18,260   (161) 19,700 (272) 21,550   (460) 1.3 ! (0.40) 61.0 (1.61) 28.6   (1.47) 9.1   (0.85) 8.0   (0.12) 7.5 (0.19) 7.1 (0.19) 12.7 (0.25) 83,100   (250) 91,600 (510) 91,500 (710)
Combined 2,750   (143) 6,450 (263) 6,580   (364) 4.2 ! (1.71) 58.8 (3.38) 29.5   (3.00) 7.5   (1.47) 7.5   (0.29) 7.4 (0.36) 7.1 (0.43) 13.1 (0.51) 77,600   (750) 74,600 (710) 76,800 (1,260)
                                                                       
Location of school                                                                      
City ---   (†) 22,690 (425) 21,560   (731) 1.5   (0.45) 61.3 (2.07) 26.5   (2.11) 10.7   (1.29) ---   (†) 7.3 (0.17) 7.0 (0.25) 13.0 (0.35) ---   (†) 92,500 (430) 92,500 (750)
Suburban ---   (†) 25,600 (506) 25,880   (921)   (†) 58.2 (1.92) 28.6   (1.92) 12.2   (1.23) ---   (†) 7.9 (0.23) 7.7 (0.28) 12.9 (0.30) ---   (†) 98,500 (550) 98,300 (940)
Town ---   (†) 13,700 (424) 13,860   (669)   (†) 63.5 (2.58) 30.3   (2.24) 4.9   (0.85) ---   (†) 8.1 (0.28) 7.8 (0.34) 13.6 (0.38) ---   (†) 79,500 (580) 78,600 (720)
Rural ---   (†) 25,640 (492) 29,170   (1,012) 2.0   (0.55) 62.3 (1.70) 30.7   (1.74) 5.1   (0.65) ---   (†) 7.9 (0.22) 7.5 (0.27) 13.1 (0.29) ---   (†) 75,000 (410) 76,800 (670)
                                                                       
Private schools                                                                      
Total 25,020   (198) 27,690 (677) 27,960   (328) 32.6   (1.37) 50.2 (1.20) 10.0   (0.75) 7.2   (0.63) 8.8   (0.20) 10.0 (0.24) 10.0 (0.22) 13.9 (0.29) $47,100   (530) $57,900 (700) $58,300 (810)
                                                                       
Sex                                                                      
Males 11,610   (301) 12,110 (552) 13,070   (457) 32.8   (2.33) 50.4 (1.85) 8.1   (0.96) 8.6   (1.03) 9.0   (0.26) 11.0 (0.35) 10.6 (0.37) 12.6 (0.50) 52,300   (830) 63,900 (1,160) 63,800 (1,370)
Females 13,410   (283) 15,580 (491) 14,890   (369) 32.5   (1.82) 49.9 (1.68) 11.7   (1.23) 5.9   (0.75) 8.6   (0.27) 9.2 (0.28) 9.5 (0.26) 15.0 (0.37) 42,800   (890) 53,400 (970) 53,700 (980)
                                                                       
Race/ethnicity                                                                      
White 23,130   (270) 24,850 (715) 24,400   (409) 31.9   (1.47) 51.2 (1.20) 9.7   (0.68) 7.2   (0.66) 8.7   (0.22) 10.3 (0.24) 10.4 (0.25) 14.0 (0.32) 46,900   (590) 58,400 (700) 59,500 (890)
Black 1,060   (124) 1,440 (155) 1,820   (184) 36.5   (5.16) 40.7 (5.19) 15.7   (4.61) 7.1 ! (3.29) 8.3   (1.04) 7.1 (1.08) 7.1 (0.90) 12.7 (1.37) 50,500   (3,640) 51,100 (3,990) 50,100 (2,180)
Hispanic 520   (91) 820 (116) 1,110   (149) 40.4   (6.38) 40.5 (6.72) 11.2 ! (4.49)   (†) 10.1   (1.43) 6.6 (1.29) 7.8 (0.87) 14.0 (1.15) 46,000   (2,870) 55,400 (4,540) 48,800 (3,340)
                                                                       
Age                                                                      
Under 40 4,790   (302) 4,420 (267) 4,750   (318) 47.0   (3.68) 42.4 (3.16) 6.5   (1.55) 4.1   (1.13) 3.5   (0.22) 2.9 (0.20) 3.0 (0.22) 6.0 (0.33) 38,600   (1,280) 47,200 (1,820) 47,300 (1,400)
40 to 44 4,400   (217) 3,040 (250) 3,250   (277) 42.7   (4.36) 43.8 (4.18) 7.7   (1.93) 5.8 ! (2.01) 5.3   (0.24) 5.4 (0.38) 5.3 (0.35) 9.8 (0.65) 44,800   (1,360) 50,300 (1,980) 54,800 (2,710)
45 to 49 5,140   (216) 4,020 (250) 3,420   (246) 39.7   (4.20) 47.2 (3.52) 7.8   (1.80) 5.3 ! (1.68) 8.3   (0.27) 7.6 (0.28) 6.2 (0.38) 11.5 (0.72) 50,900   (1,080) 59,600 (1,690) 55,000 (2,090)
50 to 54 4,120   (228) 5,820 (337) 4,390   (263) 29.6   (3.23) 55.6 (3.06) 7.7   (1.44) 7.1   (1.43) 9.6   (0.34) 10.1 (0.35) 9.0 (0.45) 14.1 (0.66) 55,400   (1,470) 60,500 (1,810) 59,500 (1,850)
55 or over 6,550   (244) 10,390 (425) 12,150   (398) 23.4   (2.02) 53.8 (2.09) 13.4   (1.27) 9.4   (0.96) 14.8   (0.40) 15.2 (0.40) 15.4 (0.43) 18.6 (0.44) 46,700   (1,110) 62,300 (1,280) 63,700 (1,450)
                                                                       
Type of school                                                                      
Elementary 13,350   (158) 16,750 (327) 16,110   (297) 32.2   (1.81) 52.0 (1.64) 10.5   (1.17) 5.2   (0.70) 9.4   (0.27) 9.9 (0.30) 9.9 (0.30) 14.1 (0.37) 42,200   (650) 54,500 (780) 56,200 (980)
Secondary 2,300   (244) 2,510 (364) 2,930   (168) 18.0   (3.06) 59.5 (3.47) 11.8   (2.07) 10.7   (1.62) 7.8   (0.36) 9.3 (0.77) 9.9 (0.58) 14.6 (0.61) 64,100   (1,150) 75,000 (2,990) 76,200 (2,400)
Combined 6,770   (115) 8,430 (281) 8,920   (271) 38.1   (2.20) 43.8 (2.18) 8.5   (1.11) 9.6   (1.18) 8.0   (0.34) 10.3 (0.39) 10.2 (0.44) 13.2 (0.53) 49,400   (1,630) 59,500 (1,750) 55,800 (1,500)
                                                                       
Location of school                                                                      
City ---   (†) --- (†) 9,610   (268) 23.2   (1.90) 55.8 (2.11) 12.2   (1.46) 8.7   (1.17) ---   (†) --- (†) 10.8 (0.38) 14.8 (0.43) ---   (†) --- (†) 65,800 (1,310)
Suburban ---   (†) --- (†) 9,510   (229) 29.8   (2.19) 52.2 (2.04) 10.1   (1.14) 7.9   (1.06) ---   (†) --- (†) 10.5 (0.36) 13.8 (0.43) ---   (†) --- (†) 62,400 (1,440)
Town ---   (†) --- (†) 2,780   (205) 30.7   (3.76) 49.2 (4.10) 13.0   (3.67) 7.1   (1.96) ---   (†) --- (†) 9.4 (0.80) 16.1 (1.22) ---   (†) --- (†) 44,900 (2,180)
Rural ---   (†) --- (†) 6,060   (296) 52.8   (3.49) 38.5 (3.22) 5.0   (1.04) 3.6   (1.03) ---   (†) --- (†) 8.1 (0.53) 11.5 (0.72) ---   (†) --- (†) 43,500 (1,660)
---Not available.    
†Not applicable.    
!Interpret data with caution.
‡Reporting standards not met.    
1 Counts of principals in this table differ from totals appearing in some other tables because this table reflects counts of full- and part-time principals, while other counts of principals are reported as full-time-equivalents.
2 Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index, prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, adjusted to a school-year basis. Excludes principals reporting a salary of $0.
3 Education specialist degrees or certificates are generally awarded for 1 year's work beyond the master's level. Includes certificate of advanced studies.    
4 Data include Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander.    
NOTE: Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding and survey item nonresponse. Standard errors appear in parentheses.    
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), "Public School Principal Questionnaire" and "Private School Principal Questionnaire," 1993-94, 2003-04, and 2007-08. (This table was prepared August 2010.)
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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education