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Title IX

Question:
What is Title IX?

Response:
Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 protects people from discrimination based on sex in education programs and activities that receive federal financial assistance.

The Title IX regulation describes the conduct that violates Title IX. Examples of the types of discrimination that are covered under Title IX include sexual harassment, the failure to provide equal opportunity in athletics, and discrimination based on pregnancy. To enforce Title IX, the U.S. Department of Education maintains an Office for Civil Rights, with headquarters in Washington, DC and 12 offices across the United States.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights. (2015). Title IX and Sex Discrimination.

Examples of progress toward gender equity in recent decades are listed below:

Postsecondary Degrees

Educational attainment refers to the highest level of education completed (e.g., a high school diploma or equivalency certificate, an associate's degree, a bachelor’s degree, or a master’s degree). Since 2000, attainment rates among 25- to 29-year-olds have generally been higher for females than for males at each education level. Postsecondary degree attainment rates have increased more rapidly for females than for males since 1995. This pattern was observed across all levels of postsecondary education. For example, in 1995 the percentages of males and females who had completed an associate’s or higher degree were not measurably different, but in 2015 some 50 percent of females had completed an associate’s or higher degree, compared with 41 percent of males. Similarly, in 1995 the percentages of male and female 25- to 29-year-olds who had completed a bachelor’s or higher degree were not measurably different, but in 2015 the percentage of females (39 percent) who had attained this level of education was 7 percentage points higher than the percentage of males who had done so (32 percent).

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2016). The Condition of Education 2016 (NCES 2016-144), Educational Attainment of Young Adults.

Participation in Athletics

Data from the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) provide information concerning personnel, revenues, expenses, and other comparative variables of men’s and women’s intercollegiate athletics programs at NCAA member institutions for the fiscal years 2004 through 2010. Comparing the 2004 data to the 2010 data reveals increases in the proportion of female student athletes. During this time, there was an approximately 14 percentage point increase in the proportion of female student athletes in Division I, a 21 percentage point increase for women in Division II, and a 14 percentage point increase for women in Division III.

SOURCE: The National Collegiate Athletic Association. (2012). Research — NCAA Gender Equity Report 2004–2010.

Related Tables and Figures:  (Listed by Release Date)

Other Resources:  (Listed by Release Date)