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Title IX

What is Title IX?

Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 protects people from discrimination based on sex in education programs and activities that receive federal financial assistance.

The Title IX regulation describes the conduct that violates Title IX. Examples of the types of discrimination that are covered under Title IX include sexual harassment, the failure to provide equal opportunity in athletics, and discrimination based on pregnancy. To enforce Title IX, the U.S. Department of Education maintains an Office for Civil Rights, with headquarters in Washington, DC and 12 offices across the United States.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights. Title IX and Sex Discrimination.

Examples of progress toward gender equity in recent decades are listed below:

Postsecondary Degrees

Differences in educational attainment by sex have shifted over the past few decades, with female attainment rates higher than male attainment rates at each education level since 2000. For example, in 1990 the percentages of male and female 25- to 29-year-olds who had completed a bachelor's degree or higher were not measurably different, but in 2013 the percentage of females (37 percent) attaining this level was 7 points higher than the percentage of males doing so (30 percent). Similarly, in 1995 the percentages of males and females who had completed a master's degree or higher were not measurably different, but in 2013 some 9 percent of females had completed a master's degree or higher, compared with 6 percent of males.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2014). The Condition of Education 2014 (NCES 2014-083), Educational Attainment.

Participation in Athletics

Data from the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) provide information concerning personnel, revenues, expenses and other comparative variables of men’s and women’s intercollegiate athletics programs at NCAA member institutions for the fiscal years 2004 through 2010. Comparing the 2004 data to the 2010 data reveals increases in the proportion of female student athletes. During this time, there was an approximately 14 percentage point increase in the proportion of female student athletes in Division I, a 21 percentage point increase for women in Division II, and a 14 percentage point increase for women in Division III.

SOURCE: The National Collegiate Athletic Association. (2012). Research — NCAA Gender Equity Report 2004-2010.

Related Tables and Figures:  (Listed by Release Date)

Other Resources:  (Listed by Release Date)

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National Center for Education Statistics -
U.S. Department of Education