What data do you have on historically Black colleges and universities in the U.S.?
Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) are institutions that were established prior to 1964 and have the principal mission of educating Black Americans (source) . These institutions were founded and developed in an environment of legal segregation and, by providing access to higher education, contributed substantially to the progress Blacks have made in improving their status (source). Today, there are 100 HBCUs located in 19 states, the District of Columbia, and the U.S. Virgin Islands (source). Of the 100 HBCUs, 51 are public institutions and 49 are private, not-for-profit institutions. The number of students enrolled at HBCUs rose by 45 percent between 1976 and 2011, from 223,000 to 324,000 (source) . In comparison, total postsecondary enrollment increased by 91 percent, from 11 million to nearly 21 million, during that period (source) .
Although HBCUs were originally founded to educate Black students, they have historically enrolled students other than Black Americans. This diversity has increased over time (source). In 2011, non-Black students made up 19 percent of enrollment at HBCUs, compared with 15 percent in 1976 (source) and (source). Enrollment at HBCUs in 2011 was 61 percent female, up from 53 percent in 1976 (source) . In 2011, some 87 percent of HBCU students attended a 4-year institution, while 13 percent attended a 2-year institution. A higher percentage of HBCU students attended public institutions than private, not-for-profit institutions (76 vs. 24 percent). Among Black students, the percentage enrolled at HBCUs has fallen over time, from 18 percent in 1976 to 9 percent in 2011 (source , source , and source).
In 2010Ė11, most of the 46,000 degrees conferred by HBCUs were bachelorís degrees (71 percent) and masterís degrees (16 percent) (source) . Blacks earned 85 percent of the 33,000 bachelorís degrees conferred by HBCUs in that year. At the masterís level in 2010Ė11, Black HBCU students earned 73 percent of the degrees conferred at these institutions. In addition, at both levels, a majority of these degrees were awarded to Black females. Over time, the shares of bachelorís and masterís degrees awarded to Blacks by HBCUs have decreased (source, source , source , and source) . For example, HBCUs awarded 35 percent of the bachelorís degrees Blacks earned in 1976Ė77, compared with 16 percent in 2010Ė11. Additionally, the percentage of Black doctorís degree recipients who received their degrees from HBCUs was one percentage point lower in 2010Ė11 (13 percent) than in 1976Ė77 (14 percent) (source, source , source , and source) .
The total revenue for HBCUs in 2010Ė11 was $8.5 billion, with $1.7 billion from student tuition and fees. Total expenditures in that year reached $7.7 billion, of which $2.1 billion was spent on instruction (source) .
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