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Table 305. Percentage of full-time instructional faculty with tenure for degree-granting institutions with a tenure system, by academic rank, sex, and control and level of institution: Selected years, 1993-94 through 2011-12
Academic year, control and level of institution Percent of institu-
tions with tenure systems
Percent of full-time instructional faculty with tenure
Total Professor Associate professor Assistant professor Instruc- tor Lec-
turer
No aca-
demic rank
Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
1993-94                                
All institutions 62.6 56.2 62.6 42.7 91.9 92.8 87.7 76.8 77.5 75.1 14.4 13.6 15.5 38.3 10.8 26.0
Public institutions 73.6 58.9 65.4 45.6 92.6 93.6 87.5 80.8 81.6 78.9 17.1 16.1 18.5 45.5 7.2 28.6
4-year 92.6 56.3 63.5 39.3 94.3 94.7 92.0 80.4 81.2 78.4 13.8 13.0 14.8 4.4 5.4 6.1
Doctoral1 100.0 54.5 62.1 35.0 94.2 94.7 90.1 81.3 82.1 79.2 7.3 6.7 8.3 2.8 2.1 5.4
Master's2 98.3 60.5 67.7 46.1 95.4 95.5 95.0 79.3 80.0 77.7 23.0 23.0 22.9 6.4 11.7 11.0
Other 76.4 51.1 56.3 40.0 88.4 88.8 86.4 76.5 77.3 74.8 22.7 22.8 22.6 4.6 15.0 6.4
2-year 62.1 69.9 75.4 63.0 80.7 83.7 75.5 84.2 86.4 81.5 47.7 51.1 44.6 68.9 39.9 65.7
Nonprofit institutions 62.0 49.5 56.0 35.5 90.3 90.8 88.1 67.6 68.1 66.5 9.0 8.7 9.4 6.1 21.9 18.9
4-year 66.3 49.5 56.0 35.4 90.3 90.8 88.0 67.6 68.1 66.5 9.0 8.7 9.4 5.5 21.6 15.7
Doctoral1 90.5 47.6 53.5 31.9 90.5 90.8 88.5 62.5 63.4 60.0 3.7 3.7 3.7 8.9 29.2 15.4
Master's2 76.5 51.8 59.2 38.2 90.8 91.1 89.8 71.3 72.2 69.6 13.4 13.6 13.1 2.6 0.7 10.5
Other 58.3 50.4 57.4 37.2 89.4 90.4 85.1 70.6 70.9 70.2 11.9 11.9 11.9 3.9 3.4 20.0
2-year 26.1 47.9 54.5 38.5 88.0 84.3 94.3 63.8 65.1 62.7 12.0 12.3 11.9 20.0 86.7 68.6
For-profit institutions 7.8 33.8 39.0 27.8 95.2 94.1 32.9
                                 
1999-2000                                
All institutions 55.0 53.7 59.6 43.2 92.8 93.1 91.2 76.8 76.9 76.7 11.8 11.0 12.9 34.1 3.4 18.3
Public institutions 72.8 55.9 62.0 45.6 93.9 94.4 91.9 81.0 81.2 80.7 14.1 13.1 15.4 39.8 4.1 21.2
4-year 94.6 53.2 60.3 39.3 94.2 94.6 92.5 80.8 81.0 80.3 10.0 9.5 10.6 3.9 3.0 4.0
Doctoral1 100.0 50.4 58.0 34.5 92.9 93.6 89.3 79.9 80.2 79.4 4.7 4.4 5.2 2.1 1.5 1.4
Master's2 95.5 59.1 66.0 48.0 96.9 96.9 96.8 82.7 83.0 82.1 18.1 17.8 18.5 6.4 5.9 25.3
Other 86.3 54.7 61.2 43.2 94.9 95.1 94.0 80.7 81.3 79.7 21.8 24.1 18.8 5.8 7.2 49.3
2-year 60.3 67.7 70.6 64.5 91.2 92.2 89.7 83.3 83.6 83.1 53.8 56.0 52.0 60.4 21.2 64.4
Nonprofit institutions 59.0 48.2 54.2 36.8 90.3 90.5 89.7 68.0 67.8 68.4 7.5 6.8 8.2 1.8 1.2 7.4
4-year 63.4 48.1 54.1 36.7 90.3 90.5 89.7 68.0 67.8 68.5 7.4 6.8 8.1 1.6 1.2 4.1
Doctoral1 81.2 43.4 49.6 29.6 88.6 88.7 87.6 62.6 62.8 62.2 3.0 2.8 3.2 1.0 1.3 0.5
Master's2 72.6 52.3 59.4 41.4 91.2 91.6 90.0 72.0 73.0 70.3 12.1 11.9 12.3 0.9 0.8 22.3
Other 54.9 53.5 59.3 44.0 93.5 93.8 92.8 73.1 71.2 76.0 9.9 9.4 10.5 3.6 1.6 23.5
2-year 14.0 59.7 63.3 53.6 96.0 96.0 96.0 57.1 61.3 54.3 31.6 36.7 28.3 30.2 65.8
For-profit institutions 4.0 77.4 77.2 77.6 47.4 50.0 33.3 86.1 71.9
                                 
2009-10                                
All institutions 47.8 48.7 54.5 40.6 90.3 90.7 89.3 74.6 74.5 74.6 7.2 6.9 7.6 28.2 1.4 24.7
Public institutions 71.2 50.6 56.3 42.9 91.6 92.0 90.6 78.3 78.4 78.2 9.1 8.4 9.8 33.7 1.8 30.2
4-year 90.9 47.9 54.6 38.0 92.0 92.2 91.4 78.7 78.6 78.8 5.7 5.4 6.0 2.5 1.2 7.5
Doctoral1 99.5 45.7 52.9 34.1 90.2 90.6 88.6 75.6 75.7 75.4 2.4 2.2 2.6 0.9 0.7 1.6
Master's2 98.6 53.5 60.0 45.6 97.5 97.5 97.4 86.0 86.2 85.8 11.3 11.5 11.2 3.2 1.8 8.7
Other 72.4 51.2 55.5 46.1 92.2 93.3 90.2 84.6 85.0 84.0 20.5 21.4 19.6 11.8 3.0 58.7
2-year 57.7 64.1 67.2 61.4 88.2 89.6 86.9 74.1 75.2 73.3 45.2 48.3 42.9 58.4 22.6 67.6
Nonprofit institutions 57.1 44.3 50.6 35.2 87.8 88.2 86.6 67.2 67.0 67.6 3.8 3.8 3.7 0.6 0.3 7.1
4-year 59.5 44.3 50.6 35.2 87.8 88.2 86.7 67.2 67.0 67.6 3.8 3.8 3.7 0.5 0.3 7.0
Doctoral1 83.8 39.7 46.6 28.4 85.6 86.4 82.7 59.7 60.2 59.0 1.8 1.9 1.7 0.2 0.2 1.0
Master's2 65.8 49.8 55.7 42.4 89.7 90.1 88.8 74.0 74.1 73.8 7.2 7.6 6.8 0.7 0.2 20.4
Other 47.4 53.4 59.1 45.8 93.2 92.9 93.8 79.4 78.6 80.5 4.8 5.0 4.5 1.6 1.6 45.7
2-year 12.9 38.5 49.5 31.7 86.7 70.0 59.3 64.7 56.8 20.5 18.5 21.4 8.2 30.0
For-profit institutions 1.5 51.0 58.6 42.1 75.5 74.7 77.8 8.5 3.2 12.5 87.3
                                 
2011-12                                
All institutions 45.3 48.5 54.2 41.0 89.7 90.1 88.9 74.9 75.0 74.9 6.9 6.4 7.3 27.3 1.3 23.8
Public institutions 71.6 50.7 56.2 43.6 91.1 91.5 90.1 78.6 78.8 78.2 8.8 8.1 9.6 33.1 1.7 29.6
4-year 90.8 48.0 54.5 38.7 91.4 91.6 90.6 78.9 79.0 78.7 5.5 5.2 5.8 2.9 1.1 9.6
Doctoral1 99.6 46.0 52.9 35.5 90.0 90.4 88.5 76.2 76.5 75.7 2.5 2.3 2.8 1.1 0.7 1.3
Master's2 97.5 55.6 61.9 48.3 97.6 97.6 97.7 88.6 88.9 88.2 13.3 13.3 13.3 1.8 2.4 7.1
Other 70.2 54.2 57.7 50.4 93.2 94.3 91.2 87.8 87.7 87.8 24.3 25.1 23.5 21.3 2.7 63.9
2-year 57.8 64.7 67.3 62.4 88.7 89.9 87.6 75.1 76.2 74.1 44.0 46.2 42.4 58.9 17.2 69.7
Nonprofit institutions 55.6 43.7 49.9 35.1 87.0 87.3 86.3 67.8 67.4 68.3 3.3 3.4 3.3 0.4 0.3 6.7
4-year 58.6 43.7 49.9 35.1 87.0 87.3 86.3 67.8 67.4 68.4 3.3 3.4 3.3 0.4 0.3 6.6
Doctoral1 76.4 40.2 46.9 30.3 85.0 85.6 82.9 62.0 62.3 61.7 2.2 2.4 2.0 0.3 0.1 0.7
Master's2 59.3 51.0 56.4 44.7 90.9 90.7 91.3 76.7 76.5 76.9 6.7 6.5 7.0 0.7 1.3 32.6
Other 43.1 54.5 60.5 47.1 94.4 94.3 94.5 84.4 83.0 86.2 4.4 4.6 4.2 0.5 0.0 54.9
2-year 8.0 31.4 41.1 25.2 46.3 66.7 42.9 12.3 22.2 7.7 5.1 33.3
For-profit institutions 1.3 31.0 31.4 30.7 72.3 73.8 69.2 30.8 18.9 41.5 1.6 54.4 5.0
—Not available.
‡Reporting standards not met (too few cases).
1 Institutions that awarded 20 or more doctor's degrees during the previous academic year.
2 Institutions that awarded 20 or more master's degrees, but less than 20 doctor's degrees, during the previous academic year.
NOTE: The coverage of this table differs from similar tables published in editions of the Digest prior to 2003. Previous tenure tabulations included only instructional staff classified as full-time faculty; this table includes all staff with full-time instructional duties, including faculty and other instructional staff. Data for 1993-94 are for institutions of higher education, while later data are for degree-granting institutions. Degree-granting institutions grant associate’s or higher degrees and participate in Title IV federal financial aid programs. The degree-granting classification is very similar to the earlier higher education classification, but it includes more 2-year colleges and excludes a few higher education institutions that did not grant degrees. Beginning in 2009-10, includes institutions with fewer than 15 full-time employees; institutions with fewer than 15 employees did not report staff data prior to 2007-08.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), "Fall Staff Survey" (IPEDS-S:93-99); and Winter 2009-10 and Winter 2011-12, Human Resources component, Fall Staff section. (This table was prepared July 2012.)
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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education