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Table 61. Percentage distribution of quality rating of child care arrangements of children at about 4 years of age, by type of arrangement and selected child and family characteristics: 2005-06
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]
Selected child and family characteristics Quality rating of primary type of child care arrangement1
Home-based relative and nonrelative care2,3 All center-based programs
Low Medium High Low Medium High Low Medium High Low Medium High
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Total 42.6   (4.01) 47.9   (4.22) 9.5   (2.37) 9.5   (1.40) 55.9   (2.44) 34.6   (2.58) 3.2   (0.78) 56.7   (3.27) 40.1   (3.34) 11.6   (1.74) 55.6   (3.05) 32.8   (3.10)
Sex of child                                                                        
Male 45.5   (5.48) 44.1   (5.58) 10.4 ! (3.88) 6.3   (1.47) 53.5   (3.35) 40.2   (3.29) 2.2 ! (0.97) 56.5   (3.94) 41.2   (3.95) 7.7   (1.82) 52.4   (4.07) 39.8   (4.08)
Female 39.3   (5.23) 52.2   (5.83) 8.5   (2.45) 12.7   (2.32) 58.2   (3.33) 29.1   (3.24) 4.3   (1.14) 56.8   (4.83) 38.9   (4.88) 15.2   (2.84) 58.7   (3.98) 26.2   (3.71)
                                                                         
Race/ethnicity of child                                                                        
White 29.9   (4.72) 55.3   (5.34) 14.9   (4.09) 9.3   (1.79) 54.7   (3.77) 36.0   (3.69) 4.0 ! (1.93) 47.5   (8.27) 48.5   (8.29) 10.2   (1.95) 55.8   (4.01) 34.0   (3.84)
Black 52.8   (8.64) 47.2   (8.64)   (†) 14.8   (3.75) 59.9   (4.55) 25.3   (3.91) 6.9   (1.60) 67.0   (4.49) 26.1   (4.70) 20.8   (6.22) 54.6   (6.76) 24.6   (4.24)
Hispanic 62.5   (8.53) 33.4   (8.03)   (†) 7.2 ! (2.79) 52.9   (4.25) 39.8   (4.77)   (†) 56.2   (5.54) 43.4   (5.47) 11.7 ! (4.47) 50.8   (6.82) 37.6   (7.31)
Asian   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†) 61.7   (8.22) 32.8   (8.15)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†) 64.8   (8.25) 29.3   (8.02)
Pacific Islander   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)
American Indian/Alaska Native   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†) 73.5   (7.69) 23.5   (7.02)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)
Two or more races   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†) 66.0   (7.63) 25.5   (6.61)   (†) 59.7   (10.79) 40.3   (10.79)   (†) 68.4   (8.83) 19.7 ! (6.84)
                                                                         
Age of child                                                                        
Less than 48 months 31.8   (7.35) 64.3   (7.24)   (†) 9.8   (2.35) 57.1   (5.33) 33.1   (5.51)   (†) 62.3   (8.56) 35.3   (8.44) 12.5   (3.49) 55.2   (7.31) 32.3   (7.22)
48 to 52 months 40.3   (6.19) 47.2   (6.86) 12.5 ! (4.19) 12.3   (2.59) 54.9   (4.12) 32.8   (3.72)   (†) 55.5   (6.29) 43.6   (6.31) 16.2   (3.23) 54.7   (5.00) 29.1   (4.37)
53 to 57 months 46.6   (6.49) 42.5   (6.69) 10.9   (3.14) 7.3   (1.67) 56.5   (3.22) 36.2   (3.36) 3.8 ! (1.34) 57.5   (4.02) 38.7   (4.06) 8.4   (2.08) 56.2   (4.22) 35.4   (4.29)
58 or more months   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†) 55.1   (4.81) 37.7   (4.57)   (†) 46.7   (13.27) 38.4   (11.42)   (†) 57.5   (5.77) 37.5   (5.88)
                                                                         
Mother's employment status6                                                                        
Full-time (35 hours or more) 36.6   (4.34) 56.6   (4.50) 6.9 ! (2.52) 14.9   (2.84) 55.5   (3.74) 29.6   (3.67) 4.9   (1.16) 47.7   (5.16) 47.4   (5.53) 17.6   (3.47) 57.6   (4.47) 24.8   (3.72)
Part-time (less than 35 hours) 48.9   (7.47) 35.1   (7.08) 16.0   (4.61) 5.7 ! (1.80) 60.9   (4.64) 33.4   (4.72)   (†) 59.8   (8.26) 37.0   (7.97) 6.5 ! (2.17) 61.2   (6.14) 32.3   (5.97)
Looking for work   (†)   (†)   (†) 14.0 ! (5.19) 53.4   (6.27) 32.5   (6.64)   (†) 73.1   (8.42) 24.5 ! (8.27) 22.4 ! (8.52) 39.2   (8.58) 38.4   (9.45)
Not in labor force   (†)   (†)   (†) 3.5 ! (1.31) 53.3   (4.81) 43.2   (4.98)   (†) 59.0   (5.59) 39.2   (5.61) 4.2 ! (1.73) 51.2   (6.71) 44.7   (7.02)
No mother in household   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)
                                                                         
Parents' highest level                                                                        
of education                                                                        
Less than high school   (†)   (†)   (†) 12.6 ! (4.52) 59.6   (7.01) 27.8   (5.88)   (†) 57.4   (7.36) 40.4   (7.28) 20.8 ! (7.99) 61.3   (10.74) 17.9 ! (7.65)
High school completion 62.0   (6.10) 32.8   (6.20)   (†) 6.3   (1.81) 49.2   (3.34) 44.5   (4.07) 5.4   (1.47) 51.8   (6.12) 42.9   (6.28) 6.7 ! (2.48) 47.9   (4.55) 45.4   (5.62)
Some college/vocational 41.7   (6.68) 50.9   (6.75) 7.4 ! (3.39) 15.3   (2.78) 59.0   (2.92) 25.7   (2.68)   (†) 62.0   (4.22) 35.3   (4.12) 21.5   (3.69) 57.5   (3.97) 21.0   (3.62)
Bachelor's degree 29.9   (8.51) 62.1   (8.63)   (†) 6.7 ! (2.43) 59.8   (6.64) 33.4   (6.78)   (†)   (†)   (†) 7.3 ! (2.64) 60.2   (7.18) 32.6   (7.32)
Any graduate education   (†) 61.3   (8.63) 28.3   (7.99)   (†) 53.6   (7.44) 41.4   (7.48)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†) 54.5   (7.46) 40.2   (7.46)
                                                                         
Poverty status7                                                                        
Below poverty threshold 68.1   (6.76) 28.3   (6.86)   (†) 9.0   (2.36) 59.2   (3.18) 31.8   (3.48) 2.6 ! (1.10) 57.8   (4.16) 39.7   (4.35) 15.0   (4.14) 60.6   (5.68) 24.4   (5.14)
At or above poverty threshold 35.8   (4.32) 53.2   (4.79) 11.1   (2.70) 9.7   (1.46) 54.8   (3.18) 35.6   (3.30) 3.8 ! (1.35) 55.6   (4.74) 40.5   (4.70) 10.8   (1.73) 54.6   (3.61) 34.6   (3.73)
                                                                         
Socioeconomic status8                                                                        
Lowest 20 percent 71.2   (7.12) 26.4   (7.02)   (†) 6.7 ! (2.21) 58.6   (4.39) 34.7   (4.46) 3.5 ! (1.27) 53.0   (5.31) 43.6   (5.65) 9.8 ! (3.98) 63.9   (7.34) 26.4   (6.60)
Middle 60 percent 43.3   (5.26) 49.7   (5.50) 7.0 ! (2.57) 11.2   (1.83) 56.5   (2.69) 32.3   (2.68) 3.2 ! (1.22) 59.7   (4.07) 37.1   (4.05) 14.0   (2.28) 55.4   (3.37) 30.6   (3.37)
Highest 20 percent   (†) 66.3   (7.41) 25.9   (6.85) 7.3 ! (2.54) 52.2   (6.27) 40.5   (6.19)   (†)   (†)   (†) 7.5 ! (2.61) 52.7   (6.33) 39.8   (6.21)
†Not applicable.
!Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent.
‡Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater.
1 Primary type of care arrangement is the type of nonparental care in which the child spent the most hours.
2 Care provided in the child's home or in another private home by a relative (excluding parents) or by a person unrelated to the child.
3 Quality rating based on the Family Day Care Rating Scale (FDCRS). Low quality = score of 1 but less than 3. Medium quality = score of 3 but less than 5. High quality = score of 5 to 7.
4 Quality rating based on the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS). Low quality = score of 1 but less than 3. Medium quality = score of 3 but less than 5. High quality = score of 5 to 7.
5 Care provided in places such as early learning centers, nursery schools, and preschools, not classified as Head Start.
6 Mothers who reported working at least 35 hours per week are defined as employed full time, while those who reported working less than 35 hours per week are defined as employed part time. Those neither employed nor looking for work are not in the labor force.
7 Poverty status based on Census Bureau guidelines from 2002, which identify a dollar amount determined to meet a household's needs, given its size and composition. In 2002, a family of four was considered to live below the poverty threshold if its income was less than or equal to $18,392 (in current dollars).
8 Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured by a composite score based on parental education and occupations, and family income.
NOTE: Estimates weighted by W33P0. Estimates pertain to children assessed between 44 months and 65 months of age. Rating is for child's primary type of care arrangement, which was the type of nonparental care in which the child spent the most hours. Children who were primarily cared for by parents or in multiple arrangements are not included in this table. Ratings of care arrangement quality using both the FDCRS and ECERS scales were based on interviewer observations of children's interactions with adults and peers, children's exposure to materials and activities, the extent to which and the manner in which routine care needs were met, and the furnishings and displays in the classroom. The FDCRS and ECERS metrics are designed to be equivalent. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding and suppression of cells that do not meet standards.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort, Longitudinal 9-month–Kindergarten Restricted-Use Data File. (This table was prepared January 2013.)
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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education