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Table 392. Labor force participation, employment, and unemployment of persons 25 to 64 years old, by sex, race/ethnicity, and educational attainment: 2008, 2009, and 2010
Sex, race/ethnicity, and educational attainment Labor force participation Employment Unemployment
Labor force participation rate1 Number of participants (in thousands) Employment to population ratio2 Number employed (in thousands) Unemployment rate3 Number unemployed (in thousands)
2008 2009 2010 2010 2008 2009 2010 2010 2008 2009 2010 2010
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
                                                 
All persons, all education levels 79.0 (0.04) 78.6 (0.04) 77.9 (0.04) 127,203 (81.5) 75.0 (0.04) 72.1 (0.04) 70.7 (0.04) 115,462 (89.0) 5.0 (0.03) 8.4 (0.03) 9.2 (0.03) 11,741 (42.2)
Less than high school completion 63.0 (0.11) 62.6 (0.15) 61.3 (0.14) 12,554 (52.2) 56.8 (0.13) 53.1 (0.16) 51.1 (0.14) 10,469 (45.7) 9.8 (0.12) 15.2 (0.14) 16.6 (0.13) 2,085 (18.8)
High school completion4 75.7 (0.08) 75.1 (0.08) 74.1 (0.08) 32,800 (70.1) 70.8 (0.09) 67.1 (0.09) 65.4 (0.09) 28,946 (65.4) 6.4 (0.05) 10.6 (0.06) 11.7 (0.08) 3,853 (27.2)
Some college, no degree 80.6 (0.09) 79.9 (0.08) 78.9 (0.08) 28,383 (61.8) 76.5 (0.10) 72.7 (0.09) 71.0 (0.09) 25,531 (56.8) 5.2 (0.06) 9.0 (0.06) 10.0 (0.07) 2,851 (22.1)
Associate's degree 84.3 (0.09) 83.9 (0.11) 83.1 (0.13) 11,427 (36.7) 81.1 (0.10) 78.3 (0.12) 76.9 (0.14) 10,566 (35.8) 3.8 (0.07) 6.6 (0.09) 7.5 (0.08) 861 (9.8)
Bachelor's or higher degree 86.4 (0.05) 86.4 (0.05) 86.1 (0.06) 42,040 (106.2) 84.1 (0.05) 82.5 (0.06) 81.8 (0.07) 39,948 (102.6) 2.6 (0.03) 4.5 (0.03) 5.0 (0.04) 2,091 (19.0)
                                                 
Male, all education levels 84.9 (0.05) 84.1 (0.05) 83.2 (0.04) 66,857 (50.3) 80.6 (0.05) 76.5 (0.06) 75.1 (0.06) 60,312 (54.5) 5.1 (0.03) 9.0 (0.05) 9.8 (0.05) 6,544 (31.0)
Less than high school completion 72.7 (0.16) 71.8 (0.17) 70.5 (0.16) 7,893 (35.7) 66.2 (0.17) 61.1 (0.20) 59.2 (0.17) 6,623 (32.1) 8.9 (0.13) 14.9 (0.18) 16.1 (0.16) 1,270 (14.1)
High school completion4 81.9 (0.10) 81.0 (0.09) 80.0 (0.11) 18,435 (49.9) 76.5 (0.11) 71.7 (0.11) 69.8 (0.12) 16,090 (45.5) 6.6 (0.08) 11.5 (0.09) 12.7 (0.10) 2,344 (19.5)
Some college, no degree 86.1 (0.12) 84.8 (0.09) 83.7 (0.10) 14,311 (43.1) 81.8 (0.13) 76.8 (0.12) 75.1 (0.15) 12,844 (42.0) 5.0 (0.08) 9.4 (0.10) 10.2 (0.11) 1,467 (16.6)
Associate's degree 88.9 (0.14) 88.2 (0.16) 87.2 (0.16) 5,122 (23.8) 85.4 (0.16) 81.8 (0.20) 80.3 (0.20) 4,714 (22.4) 3.9 (0.08) 7.3 (0.13) 8.0 (0.13) 408 (7.3)
Bachelor's or higher degree 91.9 (0.05) 91.7 (0.07) 91.4 (0.07) 21,096 (56.8) 89.6 (0.06) 87.4 (0.08) 86.8 (0.08) 20,040 (54.8) 2.5 (0.04) 4.7 (0.05) 5.0 (0.05) 1,056 (11.8)
                                                 
Female, all education levels 73.3 (0.05) 73.3 (0.06) 72.8 (0.06) 60,346 (54.2) 69.6 (0.05) 67.7 (0.07) 66.5 (0.06) 55,149 (57.8) 5.0 (0.04) 7.6 (0.04) 8.6 (0.05) 5,197 (27.6)
Less than high school completion 51.0 (0.18) 51.3 (0.22) 50.2 (0.18) 4,660 (25.0) 45.2 (0.19) 43.2 (0.23) 41.4 (0.19) 3,846 (21.8) 11.5 (0.21) 15.7 (0.21) 17.5 (0.21) 815 (11.3)
High school completion4 69.0 (0.11) 68.6 (0.14) 67.8 (0.11) 14,365 (40.1) 64.8 (0.12) 62.1 (0.15) 60.7 (0.12) 12,856 (36.9) 6.1 (0.09) 9.4 (0.10) 10.5 (0.10) 1,509 (15.5)
Some college, no degree 75.6 (0.13) 75.4 (0.12) 74.6 (0.11) 14,072 (41.3) 71.6 (0.14) 68.9 (0.13) 67.3 (0.11) 12,687 (39.4) 5.3 (0.08) 8.6 (0.09) 9.8 (0.09) 1,385 (12.7)
Associate's degree 80.8 (0.13) 80.6 (0.15) 80.1 (0.16) 6,305 (26.8) 77.8 (0.14) 75.8 (0.17) 74.4 (0.19) 5,852 (26.3) 3.7 (0.10) 6.0 (0.11) 7.2 (0.13) 453 (8.3)
Bachelor's or higher degree 81.2 (0.08) 81.5 (0.08) 81.4 (0.08) 20,944 (60.0) 78.9 (0.07) 77.9 (0.09) 77.4 (0.09) 19,908 (59.1) 2.7 (0.05) 4.4 (0.05) 4.9 (0.06) 1,036 (11.9)
                                                 
White, all education levels 79.9 (0.04) 79.6 (0.05) 78.9 (0.05) 84,427 (54.9) 76.5 (0.05) 73.9 (0.05) 72.7 (0.05) 77,736 (59.4) 4.2 (0.03) 7.2 (0.04) 7.9 (0.04) 6,690 (30.3)
Less than high school completion 58.2 (0.23) 57.3 (0.25) 55.3 (0.22) 4,110 (27.1) 52.3 (0.23) 47.8 (0.25) 45.1 (0.23) 3,356 (23.1) 10.2 (0.18) 16.6 (0.23) 18.3 (0.22) 753 (10.7)
High school completion4 75.9 (0.10) 75.4 (0.10) 74.6 (0.10) 21,690 (55.3) 71.6 (0.11) 68.3 (0.11) 66.7 (0.10) 19,400 (51.4) 5.6 (0.06) 9.4 (0.08) 10.6 (0.08) 2,291 (18.8)
Some college, no degree 80.4 (0.10) 79.8 (0.10) 78.7 (0.09) 19,055 (47.4) 76.8 (0.10) 73.3 (0.11) 71.7 (0.11) 17,351 (45.6) 4.4 (0.06) 8.1 (0.07) 8.9 (0.08) 1,703 (15.0)
Associate's degree 84.5 (0.10) 84.1 (0.12) 83.5 (0.15) 8,240 (30.5) 81.7 (0.11) 79.0 (0.15) 78.0 (0.17) 7,698 (30.3) 3.3 (0.07) 6.0 (0.09) 6.6 (0.10) 543 (7.9)
Bachelor's or higher degree 86.3 (0.05) 86.3 (0.06) 86.2 (0.06) 31,332 (71.0) 84.3 (0.06) 82.8 (0.06) 82.3 (0.06) 29,931 (69.1) 2.3 (0.04) 4.1 (0.04) 4.5 (0.04) 1,401 (14.3)
                                                 
Black, all education levels 75.1 (0.13) 74.3 (0.14) 73.5 (0.12) 14,393 (27.4) 68.4 (0.15) 64.4 (0.16) 62.6 (0.12) 12,257 (27.1) 9.0 (0.11) 13.3 (0.13) 14.8 (0.12) 2,136 (18.2)
Less than high school completion 50.5 (0.41) 49.5 (0.40) 48.7 (0.39) 1,385 (15.5) 41.1 (0.40) 37.4 (0.37) 35.2 (0.36) 1,001 (12.7) 18.7 (0.47) 24.4 (0.55) 27.7 (0.47) 383 (8.0)
High school completion4 71.9 (0.22) 70.8 (0.23) 69.6 (0.25) 4,367 (23.3) 64.3 (0.25) 59.7 (0.26) 57.2 (0.23) 3,589 (20.4) 10.6 (0.20) 15.8 (0.25) 17.8 (0.25) 778 (12.3)
Some college, no degree 80.4 (0.19) 79.0 (0.23) 78.2 (0.25) 4,067 (24.8) 73.6 (0.22) 68.7 (0.27) 66.9 (0.28) 3,479 (22.0) 8.4 (0.19) 13.1 (0.21) 14.5 (0.23) 588 (10.5)
Associate's degree 84.9 (0.38) 83.9 (0.38) 82.1 (0.36) 1,290 (13.7) 79.8 (0.45) 76.0 (0.49) 73.0 (0.42) 1,147 (12.7) 6.0 (0.33) 9.4 (0.36) 11.1 (0.35) 143 (4.9)
Bachelor's or higher degree 89.6 (0.20) 89.2 (0.21) 88.9 (0.18) 3,285 (20.8) 86.0 (0.24) 83.4 (0.24) 82.2 (0.20) 3,040 (20.1) 4.1 (0.15) 6.6 (0.15) 7.4 (0.15) 244 (5.2)
                                                 
Hispanic, all education levels 78.5 (0.10) 78.3 (0.10) 77.3 (0.11) 18,906 (30.0) 73.9 (0.11) 70.4 (0.13) 68.9 (0.12) 16,846 (32.3) 5.9 (0.07) 10.1 (0.10) 10.9 (0.09) 2,060 (16.5)
Less than high school completion 71.8 (0.18) 71.7 (0.21) 70.6 (0.19) 6,169 (36.7) 66.4 (0.20) 62.9 (0.24) 61.2 (0.21) 5,351 (34.6) 7.6 (0.14) 12.3 (0.19) 13.3 (0.17) 818 (11.1)
High school completion4 78.6 (0.22) 78.3 (0.24) 77.1 (0.20) 5,082 (26.7) 73.9 (0.25) 69.8 (0.24) 68.4 (0.24) 4,507 (26.6) 6.0 (0.15) 10.8 (0.18) 11.3 (0.19) 575 (9.9)
Some college, no degree 83.6 (0.24) 82.7 (0.25) 81.8 (0.20) 3,607 (24.9) 79.1 (0.28) 75.2 (0.28) 73.3 (0.25) 3,235 (21.8) 5.4 (0.16) 9.2 (0.19) 10.3 (0.22) 372 (9.0)
Associate's degree 85.3 (0.36) 84.7 (0.39) 84.2 (0.36) 1,172 (14.4) 81.4 (0.39) 78.4 (0.48) 76.3 (0.47) 1,062 (14.7) 4.6 (0.25) 7.4 (0.32) 9.4 (0.36) 110 (4.1)
Bachelor's or higher degree 87.7 (0.18) 87.9 (0.23) 86.8 (0.26) 2,876 (27.5) 84.7 (0.21) 82.7 (0.26) 81.2 (0.31) 2,691 (27.0) 3.4 (0.13) 5.9 (0.18) 6.4 (0.20) 185 (5.8)
                                                 
Asian, all education levels 79.8 (0.15) 79.4 (0.14) 79.0 (0.15) 6,691 (14.8) 76.5 (0.15) 74.0 (0.17) 73.1 (0.17) 6,190 (17.4) 4.1 (0.10) 6.8 (0.11) 7.5 (0.13) 501 (8.8)
Less than high school completion 66.3 (0.58) 66.4 (0.62) 65.7 (0.48) 645 (10.0) 61.4 (0.58) 59.6 (0.70) 58.0 (0.57) 569 (10.0) 7.4 (0.42) 10.2 (0.56) 11.8 (0.54) 76 (3.5)
High school completion4 76.6 (0.51) 75.2 (0.46) 74.6 (0.48) 956 (13.3) 72.4 (0.52) 68.6 (0.51) 67.3 (0.49) 863 (11.9) 5.5 (0.32) 8.8 (0.35) 9.8 (0.38) 94 (4.1)
Some college, no degree 79.6 (0.50) 78.4 (0.45) 79.0 (0.52) 893 (12.2) 75.8 (0.52) 71.7 (0.54) 71.7 (0.47) 812 (11.1) 4.8 (0.26) 8.5 (0.38) 9.1 (0.34) 82 (3.4)
Associate's degree 80.7 (0.59) 79.8 (0.68) 80.5 (0.64) 459 (8.4) 77.7 (0.66) 74.6 (0.69) 74.4 (0.70) 424 (7.8) 3.8 (0.36) 6.5 (0.41) 7.7 (0.44) 35 (2.2)
Bachelor's or higher degree 83.6 (0.23) 83.6 (0.24) 83.0 (0.21) 3,736 (20.1) 81.0 (0.23) 79.2 (0.27) 78.3 (0.23) 3,522 (19.9) 3.1 (0.10) 5.3 (0.13) 5.7 (0.14) 215 (5.4)
                                                 
American Indian/Alaska Native, all
   education levels
68.5 (0.53) 68.8 (0.52) 67.0 (0.63) 724 (10.4) 62.5 (0.54) 60.0 (0.60) 56.8 (0.61) 614 (9.4) 8.7 (0.35) 12.7 (0.43) 15.2 (0.46) 110 (3.7)
Less than high school completion 46.7 (1.60) 47.3 (1.62) 46.9 (1.54) 86 (3.1) 38.7 (1.61) 36.4 (1.61) 35.1 (1.36) 64 (2.6) 17.2 (1.68) 23.1 (2.11) 25.3 (1.74) 22 (1.7)
High school completion4 66.8 (0.92) 67.2 (0.93) 64.4 (1.06) 225 (5.3) 60.8 (0.99) 57.0 (1.03) 52.4 (1.08) 183 (5.1) 9.0 (0.68) 15.2 (0.84) 18.7 (0.92) 42 (2.1)
Some college, no degree 73.7 (0.87) 72.6 (0.85) 71.0 (0.88) 213 (5.4) 68.4 (0.99) 63.6 (1.02) 61.0 (0.84) 183 (4.8) 7.2 (0.64) 12.4 (0.84) 14.1 (0.87) 30 (2.1)
Associate's degree 74.8 (1.77) 80.3 (1.54) 75.5 (1.78) 71 (2.9) 70.1 (1.72) 73.4 (1.78) 66.3 (1.87) 62 (2.9) 6.2 (1.02) 8.5 (1.07) 12.1 (1.46) 9 (1.0)
Bachelor's or higher degree 85.7 (0.95) 82.6 (1.24) 83.5 (1.19) 129 (4.8) 80.4 (1.11) 79.1 (1.21) 78.5 (1.36) 121 (4.6) 6.2 (0.96) 4.1 (0.52) 6.0 (0.73) 8 (1.0)
1 Percentage of the civilian population who are employed or seeking employment.
2 Number of persons employed as a percentage of the civilian population.
3 The percentage of persons in the civilian labor force who are not working and who made specific efforts to find employment sometime during the prior 4 weeks.
4 Includes equivalency credentials, such as the General Educational Development (GED) credential.
NOTE: Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Totals include racial/ethnic groups not separately shown. Standard errors appear in parentheses and were computed using replicate weights.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2008, 2009, and 2010, unpublished tabulations. (This table was prepared October 2011.)

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