## Mathematics for Grades 4 and 8: Trends Over Three Time Points

### Content Subscales

Table 10a. Change in average mathematics content domain scores of 8th-grade students, by education system: 2007-2015 and 2011-2015
Education system Average content domain score Change in average content domain score1
2007 2011 2015 Score difference: 2007 to 2015 Score difference: 2011 to 2015
Number Algebra Geometry Data and chance Number Algebra Geometry Data and chance Number Algebra Geometry Data and chance Number Algebra Geometry Data and chance Number Algebra Geometry Data and chance

Average score is higher than U.S. average score at the .05 level of statistical significance.

Average score is lower than U.S. average score at the .05 level of statistical significance.

― Not available.

# Rounds to zero.

*p<.05. Change in average scores is significant at the .05 level of statistical significance.

1 The change in average score is calculated by subtracting the 2007 or 2011 estimate, respectively, from the 2015 estimate using unrounded numbers.

2 National Defined Population covers 90 to 95 percent of the National Target Population in 2015.

3 Met guidelines for sample participation rates only after replacement schools were included in 2015.

4 National Defined Population covers less than 90 percent of the National Target Population (but at least 77 percent) in 2015.

5 The number in parentheses indicates years of school not grade in schooling.

6 National Target Population does not include all of the International Target Population in 2015.

7 Reservations about reliability because the percentage of students with achievement too low to estimate exceeds 15 percent but does not exceed 25 percent in 2015.

8 Reservations about reliability because the percentage of students with achievement too low to estimate exceeds 25 percent in 2015.

9 Did not satisfy guidelines for sample participation in 2015.

NOTE: Education systems are ordered by 2015 average score in number. Education systems that are not countries are designated by the appended three-letter international abbreviation for their country. Participants that did not administer TIMSS at the target grade are not shown; see the international report for their results. For cross-education system trend tables, data are shown for the first available and most recent year; 1995 is the first year for the overall mathematics scale and benchmark data and 2007 is the first year for the content and cognitive subscales. Participants that only participated in one of the three time points are also excluded. U.S. state data are based on public school students only. For TIMSS 2015, Norway revised its assessed population to students in their 5th and 9th years of schooling to obtain better comparisons with Sweden and Finland. However, in previous TIMSS cycles Norway assessed students in their 4th and 8th years of schooling, which were defined as 4th and 8th grades but have been redefined as 3rd and 7th grades because year 1 in Norway is now considered the equivalent of a year of kindergarten. To maintain trend with previous TIMSS cycles, in 2015 Norway also collected data from students in their 4th and 8th years of schooling, which is used in trend tables. Trend results for Kuwait do not include private schools. Trend results for Lithuania do not include students taught in Polish or in Russian.

For 2007, Georgia and Lithuania had a National Target Population that did not include all of the International Target Population; the United States and Ontario-CAN had a National Defined Population that covered 90-95 percent of the National Target Population; Quebec-CAN had a National Defined Population that covered less than 90 percent of the National Target Population (but at least 77 percent); England-GBR, Hong Kong-CHN, and the United States met guidelines for sample participation only after replacement schools were included; Dubai-UAE nearly satisfied guidelines for sample participation rates after replacement schools were included; and Kuwait and Dubai-UAE tested the same cohort of students as other education systems, but later in the assessment year at the beginning of the next school year.

For 2011, Georgia, Lithuania, and Florida-USA had a National Target Population that did not include all of the International Target Population; the Russian Federation, Singapore, the United States, Ontario-CAN, and Florida-USA had a National Defined Population that covered 90-95 percent of the National Target Population; Israel had a National Defined Population that covered less than 90 percent of the National Target Population (but at least 77 percent); England-GBR nearly satisfied guidelines for sample participation rates after replacement schools were included; and Bahrain tested the same cohort of students as other education systems, but later in the assessment year at the beginning of the next school year. In Bahrain, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Jordan, Oman, Qatar, and Saudi Arabia in 2011 there were reservations about reliability because the percentage of students with achievement too low for estimation exceeded 15 percent but did not exceed 25 percent; in Morocco there were reservations about reliability because the percentage of students with achievement too low for estimation exceeded 25 percent.

The standard errors for the estimates shown in this table are in table 10b available at http://nces.ed.gov/timss/timss2015/timss2015_table10b.asp.

SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), 2007, 2011, and 2015.

Singapore2 605 591 590 589 611 614 609 607 629 623 617 617 24 * 31 * 27 * 28 * 18 * 8 8 10
Korea, Republic of 592 608 600 602 618 617 612 616 601 612 612 600 9 * 4 12 * -1 -17 * -4 # -15 *
Hong Kong-CHN 575 575 580 560 588 583 597 581 594 593 602 597 19 * 18 * 22 * 37 * 6 10 4 16 *
Chinese Taipei-CHN 586 629 605 579 598 628 625 584 590 613 607 588 4 -16 * 2 9 -8 -15 * -18 * 4
Japan 558 567 584 591 557 570 586 579 572 596 598 589 14 * 29 * 14 * -2 15 * 26 * 12 * 10 *
Russian Federation 510 525 510 483 534 556 533 511 533 558 536 507 23 * 33 * 25 * 24 * -1 2 3 -4
England-GBR 511 496 513 552 512 489 498 543 528 492 514 541 17 * -4 1 -11 15 * 3 16 * -2
Slovenia 504 491 500 509 511 493 504 518 524 498 522 525 20 * 8 * 22 * 16 * 13 * 5 18 * 7
United States3 514 507 480 533 514 512 485 527 520 525 500 522 6 18 * 20 * -11 * 6 13 * 15 * -5
Israel4 518 521 496 515 518 517 487 503 # -4 -9 -12
Hungary 520 508 510 527 510 496 501 517 518 503 518 519 -3 -5 8 -8 8 6 17 * 2
Kazakhstan 479 506 491 444 516 555 529 492 37 * 49 * 39 * 48 *
Sweden 505 459 472 526 504 459 456 504 513 482 478 512 7 * 23 * 5 -14 * 9 * 23 * 22 * 8
Lithuania2 507 487 509 526 501 492 500 515 512 498 516 524 5 10 * 7 -1 11 * 6 16 * 9 *
Australia 504 474 488 526 513 489 499 534 511 491 500 519 8 16 * 12 * -7 -1 2 1 -16 *
Norway (8)5 485 424 458 502 492 432 461 513 504 423 477 519 19 * -1 20 * 17 * 11 * -9 * 17 * 6
Malta 499 475 494 482 501 492 484 487 2 18 * -10 * 5
New Zealand3 492 472 483 513 500 475 488 509 7 3 5 -5
Italy2 480 460 491 485 496 491 512 499 494 481 504 496 14 * 21 * 13 * 12 * -2 -10 * -8 -3
Malaysia 494 455 474 459 451 430 432 429 472 467 455 451 -22 * 11 -19 * -7 21 * 37 * 23 * 22 *
United Arab Emirates 459 468 431 440 464 485 447 449 5 17 * 17 * 9 *
Georgia2, 6 416 416 402 350 435 450 406 392 457 469 441 421 40 * 52 * 39 * 71 * 22 * 18 * 34 * 30 *
Turkey 435 455 454 467 447 459 463 467 13 * 4 8 -1
Lebanon 453 468 455 388 451 471 447 393 440 466 444 395 -13 * -2 -12 * 7 -11 * -5 -4 2
Bahrain 381 397 403 400 397 424 398 407 436 483 449 453 54 * 86 * 46 * 53 * 39 * 58 * 51 * 46 *
Qatar7 408 425 387 390 435 452 433 417 27 * 27 * 45 * 27 *
Iran, Islamic Republic of7 388 405 414 396 402 422 437 393 432 437 448 417 44 * 33 * 33 * 21 * 30 * 15 * 10 24 *
Thailand 443 431 437 438 425 425 415 431 430 429 429 425 -12 -1 -8 -14 * 6 4 14 -6
Chile7 413 403 419 426 427 413 428 429 15 * 11 * 9 4
Egypt7 386 405 397 358 393 420 393 338 8 15 * -4 -20 *
Oman7 354 384 377 365 351 383 377 342 389 426 415 376 35 * 43 * 38 * 11 * 38 * 43 * 38 * 34 *
Morocco8 379 357 390 332 382 372 410 353 3 16 * 20 * 21 *
Jordan8 412 445 429 406 390 432 407 379 380 418 381 346 -32 * -28 * -48 * -60 * -10 * -14 * -26 * -33 *
Kuwait7 338 341 377 339 376 364 366 361 38 * 23 * -11 * 22 *
Saudi Arabia8 393 399 364 387 352 391 342 361 -41 * -8 -22 * -25 *
Benchmarking participants
Quebec-CAN9 537 512 527 540 543 516 529 549 557 530 540 546 19 * 18 * 13 * 6 14 * 15 * 12 * -2
Ontario-CAN 528 496 510 547 519 497 512 531 530 507 524 531 2 11 * 13 * -16 * 11 * 11 * 12 * #
Dubai-UAE 458 476 445 444 479 489 453 468 509 528 496 504 50 * 53 * 51 * 59 * 29 * 40 * 44 * 36 *
Florida-USA6 517 513 499 528 498 502 470 489 -19 * -11 -29 * -39 *
Abu Dhabi-UAE 452 459 424 434 443 462 425 426 -10 3 1 -8