Mathematics for Grades 4 and 8: Trends Over Three Time Points

Content Subscales

Table 9a. Change in average mathematics content domain scores of 4th-grade students, by education system: 2007-2015 and 2011-2015
Education system Average content domain score Change in average content domain score1
2007 2011 2015 Score difference: 2007 to 2015 Score difference: 2011 to 2015
Number Geometric shapes and measures Data display Number Geometric shapes and measures Data display Number Geometric shapes and measures Data display Number Geometric shapes and measures Data display Number Geometric shapes and measures Data display

Average score is higher than U.S. average score at the .05 level of statistical significance.

Average score is lower than U.S. average score at the .05 level of statistical significance.

― Not available.

# Rounds to zero.

* p<.05. Change in average scores is significant at the .05 level of statistical significance.

1 The change in average score is calculated by subtracting the 2007 or 2011 estimate, respectively, from the 2015 estimate using unrounded numbers.

2 National Defined Population covers 90 to 95 percent of the National Target Population in 2015.

3 Met guidelines for sample participation rates only after replacement schools were included in 2015.

4 Nearly satisfied guidelines for sample participation rates after replacement schools were included in 2015.

5 National Defined Population covers less than 90 percent of the National Target Population (but at least 77 percent) in 2015.

6 The number in parentheses indicates years of school not grade in schooling.

7 National Target Population does not include all of the International Target Population in 2015.

8 Reservations about reliability because the percentage of students with achievement too low for estimation exceeds 15 percent but does not exceed 25 percent in 2015.

9 Did not satisfy guidelines for sample participation rates in 2015.

NOTE: Education systems are ordered by 2015 average score in number. Education systems that are not countries are designated by the appended three-letter international abbreviation for their country. Participants that did not administer TIMSS at the target grade are not shown; see the international report for their results. For cross-education system trend tables, data are shown for the first available and most recent year; 1995 is the first year for the overall mathematics scale and benchmark data and 2007 is the first year for the content and cognitive subscales. Participants that only participated in one of the three time points are also excluded. U.S. state data are based on public school students only. For TIMSS 2015, Norway revised its assessed population to students in their 5th and 9th years of schooling to obtain better comparisons with Sweden and Finland. However, in previous TIMSS cycles Norway assessed students in their 4th and 8th years of schooling, which were defined as 4th and 8th grades but have been redefined as 3rd and 7th grades because year 1 in Norway is now considered the equivalent of a year of kindergarten. To maintain trend with previous TIMSS cycles, in 2015 Norway also collected data from students in their 4th and 8th years of schooling, which is used in trend tables. Trend results for Kuwait do not include private schools. Trend results for Lithuania do not include students taught in Polish or in Russian.

For 2007, Georgia and Lithuania had a National Target Population that did not include all of the International Target Population; the United States, Ontario-CAN, and Quebec-CAN had a National Defined Population that covered 90-95 percent of the National Target Population; Denmark and the United States met guidelines for sample participation only after replacement schools were included; the Netherlands and Dubai-UAE nearly satisfied guidelines for sample participation rates after replacement schools were included; and Dubai-UAE tested the same cohort of students as other education systems, but later in the assessment year at the beginning of the next school year.

For 2011, Georgia, Kuwait, Lithuania, and Florida-USA had a National Target Population that did not include all of the International Target Population; Croatia, Denmark, Hong Kong-CHN, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Qatar, Serbia, Singapore, and the United States had a National Defined Population that covered 90-95 percent of the National Target Population; Florida-USA had a National Defined Population that covered less than 90 percent of the National Target Population (but at least 77 percent); the Netherlands and Northern Ireland-GBR met guidelines for sample participation rates only after replacement schools were included; and Norway (4) nearly satisfied guidelines for sample participation rates after replacement schools were included. In Oman in 2011, there were reservations about reliability because the percentage of students with achievement too low for estimation exceeded 15 percent but did not exceed 25 percent; in Kuwait and Morocco there were reservations about reliability because the percentage of students with achievement too low for estimation exceeded 25 percent.

The standard errors of the estimates shown in this table are in table 9b available at http://nces.ed.gov/timss/timss2015/timss2015_table09b.asp.

SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), 2007, 2011, and 2015.

Singapore2 611 584 597 619 589 588 630 607 600 18 * 24 * 3 11 * 18 * 12 *
Hong Kong-CHN3 608 613 600 604 605 593 616 617 611 9 3 10 * 12 * 12 * 18 *
Korea, Republic of 606 607 603 610 610 607 4 3 4
Chinese Taipei-CHN 583 566 576 599 573 600 599 597 591 17 * 31 * 15 * # 24 * -9 *
Japan 564 575 588 584 589 590 592 601 593 28 * 26 * 6 8 * 12 * 4
Northern Ireland-GBR4 566 560 555 574 566 567 8 6 12 *
Russian Federation 549 543 529 545 542 533 567 557 573 18 * 14 44 * 22 * 15 * 40 *
Kazakhstan 515 491 476 552 540 524 37 * 48 * 48 *
Ireland 533 520 523 551 542 548 18 * 22 * 25 *
England-GBR 535 552 551 539 545 549 547 542 552 11 * -9 * 2 8 -3 3
United States2, 3 529 522 546 543 535 545 546 525 540 16 * 3 -5 3 -9 * -4
Belgium (Flemish)-BEL3 552 552 536 543 564 523 -8 * 11 * -13 *
Portugal2 522 548 548 541 539 546 18 * -9 -2
Lithuania2 536 518 529 537 531 526 539 527 542 3 9 * 13 * 1 -4 16 *
Denmark2, 3 513 546 527 534 548 532 535 555 526 21 * 10 * -1 1 7 -6
Finland 545 543 551 532 539 542 -14 * -4 -9
Netherlands3 539 522 545 543 524 559 531 522 539 -8 * # -6 -12 * -2 -20 *
Hungary 515 507 497 515 520 510 531 536 513 16 * 29 * 16 * 16 * 16 * 3
Czech Republic 486 487 482 509 513 519 528 531 525 42 * 44 * 43 * 19 * 18 * 6
Serbia5 529 497 503 524 503 517 -5 6 14 *
Germany 524 527 532 520 536 546 515 531 535 -9 * 4 3 -5 -5 -11 *
Sweden2 495 503 527 500 500 523 514 523 529 19 * 19 * 2 14 * 23 * 6
Slovenia 490 520 512 503 526 532 511 530 540 21 * 10 * 28 * 8 * 4 8
Italy2 510 507 499 510 513 495 510 503 498 # -3 -1 # -9 * 3
Australia 503 536 532 508 534 515 509 527 533 6 -9 # 1 -7 17 *
Spain2 487 476 479 504 503 509 18 * 26 * 30 *
Slovak Republic 500 494 482 511 500 504 502 491 496 2 -3 14 * -9 * -9 -8
Croatia 491 490 488 498 512 498 7 * 22 * 10 *
Turkey 477 447 478 489 475 476 12 * 28 * -2
Norway (4)6 468 479 474 488 507 494 489 499 495 21 * 20 * 21 * 1 -7 1
New Zealand 485 495 506 483 483 491 485 489 506 # -7 # 3 6 15 *
Georgia7 470 395 390 473 411 433 483 429 435 12 * 33 * 45 * 10 * 17 * 2
United Arab Emirates 438 418 437 455 442 453 17 * 24 * 16 *
Chile 462 455 465 455 460 463 -7 4 -2
Bahrain2 439 422 442 453 447 454 14 * 25 * 12 *
Qatar 417 399 416 446 423 435 29 * 24 * 19 *
Iran, Islamic Republic of 407 408 374 440 435 397 435 428 416 28 * 19 * 42 * -5 -7 18 *
Oman 384 376 381 423 430 414 39 * 54 * 33 *
Saudi Arabia8 410 404 403 384 381 365 -27 * -23 * -38 *
Morocco 340 350 271 381 385 351 41 * 35 * 80 *
Kuwait8 333 321 347 329 315 321 -4 -6 -26 *
Benchmarking participants
Florida-USA7 548 546 541 556 529 541 8 -16 * #
Quebec-CAN9 515 524 523 531 536 538 533 542 541 17 * 18 * 18 * 1 6 4
Dubai-UAE 452 424 444 474 449 471 514 503 517 61 * 79 * 73 * 40 * 54 * 45 *
Ontario-CAN 495 530 545 504 535 536 500 526 536 4 -3 -9 -4 -9 -1
Abu Dhabi-UAE2, 8 420 401 418 422 412 423 2 10 5