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Table 32.  Number of public middle schools with security staff present at least once a week and number of full-time and part-time security staff present at least once a week, by type of security staff and selected school characteristics: School year 2015–16
 
  Total number of
schools with security
staff present at least
once a week
  Security guards or security personnel1   School resource officers2   Sworn law enforcement officers3  
School characteristic   Full time   Part time   Full time   Part time   Full time   Part time  
All public middle schools 11,500   6,100   1,800   8,500   5,700   1,500   1,800  
                             
Enrollment size                            
Less than 300 1,200       700 ! 600 !    
300–499 2,200   700 ! 100 ! 1,300   800     500  
500–999 6,400   3,200   800   5,200   3,300   700   1,000  
1,000 or more 1,700   1,700   500 ! 1,400       100 !
                             
Locale                            
City 3,200   2,400   400 ! 4,200 ! 1,800 ! 600 ! 400 !
Suburb 4,400   3,100   700   2,400   2,100 ! 700 ! 600  
Town 1,600       800   900   100 ! 200 !
Rural 2,300   300 ! 200 ! 1,100   1,000   200 ! 500  
                             
Crime level where students live4                            
High 700   1,400   200 ! 500 !   200 ! 100 !
Moderate 2,700   1,700   800 ! 3,200 ! 1,000   600 ! 400  
Low 6,500   2,000   600   4,100   3,600   600 ! 1,100  
Mixed 1,500   1,000     700   400   100 ! 200 !
                             
Percent combined enrollment of
Black, Hispanic, Asian, Pacific
Islander, and American Indian/
Alaska Native students, and
students of Two or more races
                           
Less than 5 percent 500   #   100 ! 200 ! 200 ! #    
5 to less than 20 percent 2,700   200 ! 200 ! 1,200   2,000 ! 200 ! 500  
20 to less than 50 percent 3,300   1,200   300 ! 1,800   1,100   300 ! 400 !
50 percent or more 5,000   4,600   1,200 ! 5,300   2,400   1,000 ! 700  
                             
Percent of students eligible for
free or reduced-price lunch
                           
0–25 percent 2,000   700     1,000   1,400 ! 400 ! 300 !
26–50 percent 3,000   1,000   400 ! 1,300   1,400   100 ! 400  
51–75 percent 3,700   1,300   500 ! 4,500   1,500     700  
More than 75 percent 2,800   3,100   700 ! 1,800   1,500 ! 400 ! 300 !
                             
Percent of students below 15th
percentile on standardized tests
                           
0–5 percent 2,900   1,200   400 ! 1,300   2,200 ! 300 ! 700  
6–15 percent 4,200   1,800   600   2,900   2,000   500 ! 600  
More than 15 percent 4,300   3,100   700 ! 4,400   1,600   700 ! 500  
                             
Percent of students likely
to attend college
                           
0–35 percent 2,400   1,800   600 ! 2,000   1,600 ! 300 ! 200 !
36–60 percent 3,300   1,200   300 ! 3,600 ! 1,200   500 ! 500  
More than 60 percent 5,800   3,000   900   2,900   3,000   800 ! 1,000  
                             
Percent of students who consider
academic achievement very important
                           
0–25 percent 800   800 !   600   300 ! 200 !  
26–50 percent 2,200   900     2,600 ! 1,500 ! 200 ! 200 !
51–75 percent 3,700   1,800   200 ! 3,000   1,300   700 ! 700  
More than 75 percent 4,700   2,600   1,000   2,300   2,700   400 ! 700  
                             
Percent male enrollment                            
0–44 percent 700   600 !   500   200 ! 200 ! 100 !
45–55 percent 10,100   4,900   1,200   6,900   5,400   1,100   1,700  
More than 55 percent 600   600 ! 100 ! 1,100 ! 200 !   #  
                             
Student-to-FTE ratio5                            
Less than 12 students 1,200   400 ! #   900   400     200 !
12–16 students 4,700   2,600   700 ! 3,500   1,800   700   700  
More than 16 students 5,600   3,100   1,000   4,200   3,600   700 ! 800  
                             
Number of classroom changes6                            
0–3 changes 400     #   100 ! 200 ! 100 ! #  
4–6 changes 4,400   3,500   800   4,000   2,300   700 ! 800  
More than 6 changes 6,700   2,400   900 ! 4,400   3,300   800   1,000  
                             
Number of serious discipline problems7                            
No problems 7,400   3,300   900   6,300   3,700   1,100 ! 1,200  
1 problem 2,000   1,300   700 ! 1,100   800   300 ! 300 !
2 problems 1,100   500 ! 100 ! 600   1,100 ! 100 !  
3 or more problems 900   900     600   200 ! 100 ! 100 !
                             
Transfers as a percentage of enrollment8                            
Less than 6 percent 3,300   1,700   500 ! 1,500   1,200   600 ! 500  
6 to less than 11 percent 2,700   1,200     1,700   1,000   400   300  
11 to less than 21 percent 3,500   1,900   400 ! 4,300 ! 2,100 !   600  
21 percent or more 1,900   1,300   300 ! 1,000   1,400 ! 100 ! 400 !
                             
Prevalence of schoolwide
disruptions9
                           
No disruptions 10,300   5,200   1,600   7,000   5,400   1,400   1,500  
Any disruptions 1,200   900   200 !   400   100 !  
                             
Percent of students absent
on a daily basis
                           
0–2 percent 1,000   600 !   600   300   100 ! 100 !
3–5 percent 6,900   3,200   1,000 ! 5,700   3,800   1,000   1,300  
6–10 percent 3,100   1,800   500   2,000   1,400     300 !
More than 10 percent 400   600 ! #   200 ! 300 ! #   #  
                             
Prevalence of violent incidents10                            
No violent incidents 1,100   400 ! 300 ! 500   300 !   300 !
Any violent incidents 10,300   5,700   1,500   8,000   5,400   1,400   1,500  
# Rounds to zero.
! Interpret data with caution. The standard error for this estimate is from 30 percent to 50 percent of the estimate's value.
‡ Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the standard error represents more than 50 percent of the estimate.
1Security guards or security personnel does not include sworn law enforcement.
2School resource officers include all career law enforcement officers with arrest authority, who have specialized training and are assigned to work in collaboration with school organizations.
3Sworn law enforcement includes sworn law enforcement officers who are not school resource officers.
4Respondents were asked, "How would you describe the crime level in the area(s) in which your students live?" Response options included "high level of crime," "moderate level of crime," "low level of crime," and "students come from areas with very different levels of crime."
5Student-to-FTE ratio was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the school by the total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides. The total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides is a combination of the full-time and part-time teachers and aides, including special education teachers and aides, with an adjustment to compensate for the part-time status.
6Respondents were asked, "How many classroom changes do most students make in a typical day?" Responses exclude morning arrival and afternoon departure.
7Serious discipline problems include student racial/ethnic tensions, student bullying, student sexual harassment of other students, student verbal abuse of teachers, widespread disorder in classrooms, student acts of disrespect for teachers other than verbal abuse, gang activities, and cult or extremist group activities. If a respondent reported that any of these problems occurred daily or weekly in their school, each was counted once in the total number of serious discipline problems.
8Transfers as a percentage of enrollment combines the number of students who were transferred to a school and the number of students who were transferred from a school divided by the total number of students enrolled in the school.
9Schoolwide disruptions include actions that disrupted school activities such as death threats, bomb threats, and chemical, biological, or radiological threats. Respondents were instructed to exclude all fire alarms, including false alarms
10Violent incidents include rape or attempted rape, sexual assault other than rape (including threatened rape), physical attack or fight with or without a weapon, threat of physical attack with or without a weapon, and robbery (taking things with force) with or without a weapon.
NOTE: Middle schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 4 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 9. Responses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at the school.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 2015–16 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2016.