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Table 28.2  Percentage of public primary schools that monitored students in specified ways, by selected school characteristics: School year 2015–16

  Percentage of schools that monitored students in specified ways
School characteristic Enforce a strict dress code   Require clear book bags or ban book bags on school grounds   Provide a structured anonymous threat reporting system1   Require students to wear badges or picture IDs   Limit access to social networking websites2   Prohibit use of cell phones and text messaging devices during school hours  
All public primary schools 46.5   2.0 ! 40.3   2.9   89.2   74.9  
                         
Enrollment size                        
Less than 300 36.8     32.1     83.7   73.4  
300–499 43.0   3.9 ! 37.9     89.9   75.5  
500–999 53.6     46.5   4.2 ! 91.2   76.1  
1,000 or more 66.4     47.3     95.9   57.4  
                         
Locale                        
City 57.9     37.1   4.6 ! 94.7   79.3  
Suburb 38.6     41.6   2.4 ! 87.3   68.0  
Town 42.0     46.7     90.0   80.4  
Rural 45.8     39.4     84.8   77.0  
                         
Crime level where students live3                        
High 69.8     38.1     91.8   79.2  
Moderate 58.8     43.3     91.2   75.6  
Low 35.1   2.0 ! 40.1   2.8 ! 87.5   74.1  
Mixed 59.4     38.1     92.1   74.0  
                         
Percent combined enrollment of
Black, Hispanic, Asian, Pacific
Islander, and American Indian/
Alaska Native students, and
students of Two or more races
                       
Less than 5 percent 39.1     36.6     77.5   81.3  
5 to less than 20 percent 27.5     37.7   4.2 ! 86.9   74.0  
20 to less than 50 percent 35.2     42.1     92.1   75.5  
50 percent or more 63.5   3.7 ! 41.1   3.9 ! 90.2   74.3  
                         
Percent of students eligible for
free or reduced-price lunch
                       
0–25 percent 27.4     37.1   4.9 ! 81.6   62.6  
26–50 percent 31.5     37.9     90.6   75.5  
51–75 percent 51.0     42.7   4.2 ! 92.3   76.1  
More than 75 percent 65.4   5.6 ! 42.1     89.7   80.0  
                         
Percent of students below 15th
percentile on standardized tests
                       
0–5 percent 43.0     43.6   4.7 ! 87.9   68.9  
6–15 percent 36.8     32.0     89.4   75.9  
More than 15 percent 59.8   3.7 ! 47.5     89.9   78.0  
                         
Percent of students likely
to attend college
                       
0–35 percent 54.2     38.3     88.2   75.3  
36–60 percent 48.9     42.5   4.9 ! 94.8   78.7  
More than 60 percent 42.8   2.3 ! 40.1   2.1 ! 87.1   73.1  
                         
Percent of students who consider
academic achievement very important
                       
0–25 percent 68.0     39.5     96.5   93.3  
26–50 percent 50.0     32.4     89.0   76.2  
51–75 percent 47.8     45.7   2.9 ! 91.3   74.6  
More than 75 percent 42.9   1.6 ! 39.7   3.1 ! 87.6   73.2  
                         
Percent male enrollment                        
0–44 percent 42.0     31.8     77.8   68.5  
45–55 percent 47.5   2.2 ! 40.7   2.7   89.1   74.4  
More than 55 percent 41.3     43.4     98.5   83.3  
                         
Student-to-FTE ratio4                        
Less than 12 students 38.3     34.2     93.2   72.7  
12–16 students 49.0     41.8   2.8 ! 89.0   68.8  
More than 16 students 46.5   2.6 ! 40.7   2.9   88.5   79.3  
                         
Number of classroom changes5                        
0–3 changes 44.9   2.5 ! 39.8     88.0   78.5  
4–6 changes 47.5   1.5 ! 40.1   3.1 ! 88.0   73.7  
More than 6 changes 46.8     43.2     98.2   68.9  
                         
Regular use of security staff6                        
Regular use 49.5   2.3 ! 42.5   2.8 ! 91.8   74.5  
No regular use 43.9   1.7 ! 38.6   3.0 ! 87.1   75.3  
                         
Number of serious discipline problems7                        
No problems 46.1   2.1 ! 39.4   2.6   88.2   72.8  
1 problem 46.1     49.8     94.8   88.6  
2 problems 40.5     39.3     93.3   78.7  
3 or more problems 100.0         100.0   100.0  
                         
Transfers as a percentage of enrollment8                        
Less than 6 percent 45.3     39.3   2.5 ! 86.0   76.5  
6 to less than 11 percent 42.3     35.6     87.4   74.7  
11 to less than 21 percent 40.0   3.0 ! 44.5   2.8 ! 89.9   77.7  
21 percent or more 57.8     41.2   3.6 ! 93.5   70.6  
                         
Prevalence of schoolwide
disruptions9
                       
No disruptions 46.3   2.2 ! 40.3   3.1   89.1   75.2  
Any disruptions 48.3     41.4     90.5   70.8  
                         
Percent of students absent
on a daily basis
                       
0–2 percent 38.7     39.1     94.4   75.3  
3–5 percent 45.0   1.1 ! 42.6   2.9 ! 87.4   74.7  
6–10 percent 54.3     38.4     90.2   74.6  
More than 10 percent 45.5     23.4 !   96.7   78.3  
                         
Prevalence of violent incidents 10                        
No violent incidents 46.7   2.1 ! 39.6   2.8 ! 85.5   72.2  
Any violent incidents 46.3   1.9 ! 40.9   3.0 ! 92.0   77.0  
! Interpret data with caution. The standard error for this estimate is from 30 percent to 50 percent of the estimate's value.
‡ Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the standard error represents more than 50 percent of the estimate.
1Examples of structured anonymous threat reporting systems provided to respondents were online submission, telephone hotline, or written submission via drop box.
2Examples of social networking websites provided to respondents were Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, or Instagram.
3Respondents were asked, "How would you describe the crime level in the area(s) in which your students live?" Response options included "high level of crime," "moderate level of crime," "low level of crime," and "students come from areas with very different levels of crime."
4Student-to-FTE ratio was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the school by the total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides. The total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides is a combination of the full-time and part-time teachers and aides, including special education teachers and aides, with an adjustment to compensate for the part-time status.
5Respondents were asked, "How many classroom changes do most students make in a typical day?" Responses exclude morning arrival and afternoon departure.
6Regular use of security staff includes full- or part-time school resource officers, sworn law enforcement officers, or security guards or security personnel present at school at least once a week.
7 Serious discipline problems include student racial/ethnic tensions, student bullying, student sexual harassment of other students, student verbal abuse of teachers, widespread disorder in classrooms, student acts of disrespect for teachers other than verbal abuse, gang activities, and cult or extremist group activities. If a respondent reported that any of these problems occurred daily or weekly in their school, each was counted once in the total number of serious discipline problems.
8Transfers as a percentage of enrollment combines the number of students who were transferred to a school and the number of students who were transferred from a school divided by the total number of students enrolled in the school.
9Schoolwide disruptions include actions that disrupted school activities such as death threats, bomb threats, and chemical, biological, or radiological threats. Respondents were instructed to exclude all fire alarms, including false alarms.
10Violent incidents include rape or attempted rape, sexual assault other than rape (including threatened rape), physical attack or fight with or without a weapon, threat of physical attack with or without a weapon, and robbery (taking things with force) with or without a weapon.
NOTE: Primary schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not higher than grade 3 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 8. Detail may not sum to totals because schools may have reported using more than one of these practices. Responses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at the school.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 2015–16 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2016.