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Table 28.2  Percentage of public schools that monitored students in specified ways, by selected school characteristics: School year 2015–16

  Percentage of schools that monitored students in specified ways
School characteristic Enforce a strict dress code   Require clear book bags or ban book bags on school grounds   Provide a structured anonymous threat reporting system1   Require students to wear badges or picture IDs   Limit access to social networking websites2   Prohibit use of cell phones and text messaging devices during school hours  
All public schools 53.1   3.9   43.9   7.0   89.1   65.8  
                         
Level3                        
Primary 46.5   2.0 ! 40.3   2.9   89.2   74.9  
Middle 70.0   8.2   54.2   13.0   92.7   73.3  
High school 55.0   6.5   52.6   16.2   87.1   35.2  
Combined 59.1     28.1   4.9 ! 83.4   37.6  
                         
Enrollment size                        
Less than 300 46.6   2.8   30.8   3.3 ! 87.8   65.9  
300–499 49.3   4.3   40.2   3.5   89.0   69.8  
500–999 58.3   3.4   48.6   8.1   90.4   69.3  
1,000 or more 58.4   6.8   64.6   20.4   87.7   41.3  
                         
Locale                        
City 61.4   4.7   42.6   11.7   92.3   72.4  
Suburb 46.0   2.5   47.5   7.3   88.3   61.8  
Town 52.4   5.7 ! 46.8   4.6   88.7   66.4  
Rural 53.7   3.9   39.5   2.9 ! 87.2   63.7  
                         
Crime level where students live4                        
High 70.9   5.3 ! 37.0   13.0   92.2   76.7  
Moderate 62.9   4.3   46.0   8.2   90.9   69.6  
Low 45.4   3.4   44.2   5.0   87.7   63.3  
Mixed 59.7   4.7   44.0   9.6   90.5   63.3  
                         
Percent combined enrollment of
Black, Hispanic, Asian, Pacific
Islander, and American Indian/
Alaska Native students, and
students of Two or more races
                       
Less than 5 percent 50.6   3.4 ! 40.3     86.2   65.2  
5 to less than 20 percent 40.2   2.9   43.2   4.1   87.5   57.6  
20 to less than 50 percent 44.2   2.7   45.5   4.7   90.0   67.0  
50 percent or more 66.8   5.3   43.9   11.1   90.0   70.1  
                         
Percent of students eligible for
free or reduced-price lunch
                       
0–25 percent 36.5   2.0 ! 44.2   7.2   82.1   55.6  
26–50 percent 42.8   2.5   43.1   4.0   90.4   61.6  
51–75 percent 57.6   3.2   45.5   8.5   90.3   66.9  
More than 75 percent 68.7   7.1   43.0   8.2   90.9   75.0  
                         
Percent of students below 15th
percentile on standardized tests
                       
0–5 percent 48.0   2.1   46.5   7.1   87.6   60.1  
6–15 percent 46.8   3.1   37.5   5.6   89.3   65.4  
More than 15 percent 64.0   6.1   49.2   8.4   90.0   70.5  
                         
Percent of students likely
to attend college
                       
0–35 percent 60.1   6.6   40.7   7.0   90.2   69.6  
36–60 percent 56.3   2.5   46.9   8.4   92.1   68.6  
More than 60 percent 49.2   3.6   43.6   6.3   87.4   63.3  
                         
Percent of students who consider
academic achievement very important
                       
0–25 percent 69.6   6.7 ! 37.7   7.6 ! 94.6   81.9  
26–50 percent 56.1   4.9   38.6   6.6   89.7   65.2  
51–75 percent 55.1   4.5   47.9   6.9   91.2   65.6  
More than 75 percent 49.0   2.9   44.0   7.1   87.1   64.3  
                         
Percent male enrollment                        
0–44 percent 51.2   4.6 ! 40.6   6.3   83.2   62.3  
45–55 percent 53.6   4.1   44.2   6.9   89.0   65.4  
More than 55 percent 50.2   1.7 ! 43.9   8.0 ! 95.0   72.4  
                         
Student-to-FTE ratio5                        
Less than 12 students 49.0   5.0 ! 35.5   3.7 ! 90.3   64.5  
12–16 students 55.1   3.5   43.4   6.8   90.6   64.1  
More than 16 students 52.8   3.9   46.5   8.0   87.8   67.3  
                         
Number of classroom changes6                        
0–3 changes 45.7   2.8 ! 40.1   3.3 ! 88.1   76.8  
4–6 changes 52.3   3.9   44.9   6.8   87.9   67.6  
More than 6 changes 59.7   4.7   45.5   9.9   91.7   55.0  
                         
Regular use of security staff7                        
Regular use 57.3   4.7   49.2   9.2   90.4   62.2  
No regular use 47.6   2.8   37.1   4.0   87.5   70.5  
                         
Number of serious discipline problems8                        
No problems 52.4   3.5   42.0   5.8   88.4   65.0  
1 problem 54.6   5.0   52.4   9.4   92.0   70.5  
2 problems 48.9   6.6   47.2   13.3   90.7   65.0  
3 or more problems 71.7   5.9 ! 53.6   17.1   95.4   69.4  
                         
Transfers as a percentage of enrollment9                        
Less than 6 percent 52.1   3.3   44.0   7.4   87.3   64.6  
6 to less than 11 percent 51.2   3.9   39.3   5.8   85.7   63.7  
11 to less than 21 percent 50.5   4.3   47.8   6.7   91.2   69.1  
21 percent or more 59.4   4.2   43.7   7.9   92.5   65.3  
                         
Prevalence of schoolwide
disruptions10
                       
No disruptions 53.0   3.9   43.7   7.0   89.0   66.0  
Any disruptions 54.1   3.7   46.4   7.0   90.0   63.9  
                         
Percent of students absent
on a daily basis
                       
0–2 percent 45.2   4.8 ! 39.4   5.7 ! 91.8   70.4  
3–5 percent 51.7   2.9   46.4   6.7   87.7   67.0  
6–10 percent 58.6   5.1   42.9   7.6   89.9   61.4  
More than 10 percent 53.4   5.8 ! 34.0   8.6   93.8   66.8  
                         
Prevalence of violent incidents 11                        
No violent incidents 48.7   2.3 ! 37.5   3.8   85.4   70.4  
Any violent incidents 55.0   4.6   46.8   8.4   90.8   63.7  
! Interpret data with caution. The standard error for this estimate is from 30 percent to 50 percent of the estimate's value.
‡ Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the standard error represents more than 50 percent of the estimate.
1Examples of structured anonymous threat reporting systems provided to respondents were online submission, telephone hotline, or written submission via drop box.
2Examples of social networking websites provided to respondents were Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, or Instagram.
3Primary schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not higher than grade 3 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 8. Middle schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 4 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 9. High schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 9 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 12. Combined schools include all other combinations of grades, including K–12 schools.
4Respondents were asked, "How would you describe the crime level in the area(s) in which your students live?" Response options included "high level of crime," "moderate level of crime," "low level of crime," and "students come from areas with very different levels of crime."
5Student-to-FTE ratio was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the school by the total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides. The total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides is a combination of the full-time and part-time teachers and aides, including special education teachers and aides, with an adjustment to compensate for the part-time status.
6Respondents were asked, "How many classroom changes do most students make in a typical day?" Responses exclude morning arrival and afternoon departure.
7Regular use of security staff includes full- or part-time school resource officers, sworn law enforcement officers, or security guards or security personnel present at school at least once a week.
8Serious discipline problems include student racial/ethnic tensions, student bullying, student sexual harassment of other students, student verbal abuse of teachers, widespread disorder in classrooms, student acts of disrespect for teachers other than verbal abuse, gang activities, and cult or extremist group activities. If a respondent reported that any of these problems occurred daily or weekly in their school, each was counted once in the total number of serious discipline problems.
9Transfers as a percentage of enrollment combines the number of students who were transferred to a school and the number of students who were transferred from a school divided by the total number of students enrolled in the school.
10Schoolwide disruptions include actions that disrupted school activities such as death threats, bomb threats, and chemical, biological, or radiological threats. Respondents were instructed to exclude all fire alarms, including false alarms.
11Violent incidents include rape or attempted rape, sexual assault other than rape (including threatened rape), physical attack or fight with or without a weapon, threat of physical attack with or without a weapon, and robbery (taking things with force) with or without a weapon.
NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals because schools may have reported using more than one of these practices. Responses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at the school.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 2015–16 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2016.