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Table 17.  Number and percentage distribution of students in public middle schools involved in the distribution, possession, or use of illegal drugs or alcohol at school receiving various disciplinary actions, by selected school characteristics: School year 2009–10

 
  Disciplinary actions taken for students involved in the distribution, possession, or use of illegal drugs or alcohol at school
  Removals with no continuing services for at least the remainder of the school year     Transfers to specialized schools1     Out-of-school suspensions lasting 5 or more days but less than the remainder of the school year     Other disciplinary actions2  
School characteristic Number of students   Percent of students     Number of students   Percent of students     Number of students   Percent of students     Number of students   Percent of students  
All public middle schools 1,600   4.6     10,000   29.3     17,200   50.6     10,300   30.2  
                                       
Enrollment size                                      
Less than 300             500 ! 25.0 !   1,000 ! 55.6  
300–499             2,800 ! 65.4     1,000 ! 23.4  
500–999 1,000 ! 5.2 !   6,300 ! 32.6     10,100   52.0     5,700   29.2  
1,000 or more 200 ! 2.7 !   2,700 ! 32.2     3,900   45.8     2,600   30.4  
                                       
Urbanicity                                      
City 400 ! 3.4 !   3,300 ! 26.7     5,400   43.7     4,800   39.0  
Suburb 700 ! 6.1 !   3,900 ! 33.2     6,500   55.7     2,500   21.3  
Town             2,700   56.8 !   1,300 ! 27.6 !
Rural             2,600   50.2     1,700   31.8  
                                       
Crime level where students live3                                      
High 300 ! 6.9 !   1,100 ! 28.8     1,600 ! 39.8 !   1,400 ! 35.7  
Moderate 600 ! 6.1 !   3,200 ! 32.3     5,100   51.4     3,200   31.9  
Low             6,200   47.8     3,900   29.5  
Mixed 200 ! 3.5 !   1,700 ! 24.4     4,300   60.9     1,800   26.2  
                                       
Percent of combined Black/African American, Hispanic/Latino, Asian, Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander, and American Indian/Alaska Native students                                      
Less than 5 percent       200 ! 13.2 !   700 ! 47.0 !   500 ! 36.1 !
5 to less than 20 percent       1,200 ! 24.5     2,500   52.1 !   1,300 ! 26.7  
20 to less than 50 percent 300 ! 3.9 !   2,500 ! 33.5     4,000   54.1     2,100   27.7  
50 percent or more 1,200   5.7     6,100   30.1     10,000   49.2     6,400   31.6  
                                       
Percent of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch                                      
0–20 percent 200 ! 6.8 !   500 ! 18.3     1,400 ! 56.1 !   600 ! 23.9  
21–50 percent 200 ! 2.3 !   2,800 ! 26.4     4,900   45.2     3,500   32.4  
More than 50 percent 1,100 ! 5.6     6,700   32.2     10,900   52.7     6,200   29.9  
                                       
Percent of students below 15th percentile on standardized tests                                      
0–5 percent 300 ! 3.5 !   2,800 ! 33.4     4,000   48.4     2,400   29.4  
6–15 percent             5,300   48.0     3,300   30.2  
More than 15 percent 800 ! 5.6 !   3,900 ! 27.0     7,900   53.8     4,500   30.7  
                                       
Percent of students likely to attend college                                      
0–35 percent 700 ! 6.1 !   3,600 ! 29.7     6,300   51.5     3,700   30.3  
36–60 percent 500 ! 4.8 !   3,000 ! 28.2     5,500   52.4     2,900   27.6  
More than 60 percent 300 ! 2.9 !   3,400 ! 30.0     5,400   48.0     3,700   32.6  
                                       
Percent of students who consider academic achievement important                                      
0–25 percent             1,600 ! 44.8     1,400   38.2      
26–50 percent 700 ! 7.2 !   2,800 ! 31.1     4,500   49.9 !   2,700 ! 30.1  
51–75 percent 300 ! 2.8 !   2,300 ! 23.8     5,300   54.1     2,500   26.1  
More than 75 percent             5,800   50.0     3,700   31.3  
                                       
Percent male enrollment                                      
0–44 percent             1,100 ! 41.6 !   900 ! 36.4 !
45–55 percent 900   3.1     8,500   29.5     14,500   50.6     8,000   28.0  
More than 55 percent       900 ! 31.6 !   1,600 ! 59.3 !   1,300 ! 48.0 !
                                       
Student-to-FTE ratio4                                      
Less than 12 students             1,300 ! 45.3 !   800 ! 28.9 !
12–16 students 500 ! 4.0 !   4,500 ! 36.5     6,700   53.9     3,300   26.9  
More than 16 students 900 ! 4.9     4,500   24.2     9,200   49.3     6,100   32.6  
                                       
Number of classroom changes5                                      
0–3 changes                      
4–6 changes 600   4.4     3,700   26.6     7,100   50.7     3,900   28.2  
More than 6 changes 900 ! 4.7 !   6,200 ! 31.4     9,700   49.3     6,200   31.7  
                                       
Regular use of law enforcement6                                      
Regular use 1,100   4.4     8,300   32.0     12,800   49.5     8,200   31.5  
No regular use             4,300   54.2     2,100   26.2  
                                       
Number of serious discipline problems7                                      
No problems 300 ! 2.2 !   4,700 ! 33.8     6,200   44.7     4,100   29.9  
1 problem 1,000 ! 9.9 !   2,800 ! 27.6     5,100   50.4     3,400   33.7  
2 problems 100 ! 3.8 !   800 ! 23.8     2,300   68.8 !   400 ! 13.5 !
3 or more problems             3,600   54.2 !   2,300 ! 33.8  
                                       
Transfers as a percentage of enrollment8                                      
Less than 6 percent 200 ! 4.6 !   700 ! 15.6     2,400   55.6 !   1,300 ! 31.3  
6 to less than 11 percent 200 ! 2.7 !   2,200 ! 29.1     3,200   42.6     2,300   30.7  
11 to less than 21 percent 500 ! 5.5 !   2,700 ! 28.0     5,100   52.1     3,300   34.0  
21 percent or more 600 ! 5.1 !   4,400 ! 35.3     6,500   52.7     3,300   26.6  
                                       
Prevalence of schoolwide
disruptions9
                                     
No disruptions 1,500   4.8     8,800   28.1     15,900   50.6     9,700   31.0  
Any disruptions             1,300 ! 50.7 !   500 ! 20.9 !
                                       
Percent of students absent on a daily basis                                       
0–2 percent                      
3–5 percent 300 ! 1.6 !   6,300 ! 32.5     8,400   43.3     6,800   35.0  
6–10 percent 800 ! 7.0 !   2,800 ! 23.6     7,200   61.1     2,700   23.4  
More than 10 percent             1,200 !        
                                       
Prevalence of violent incidents10                                      
No violent incidents                   100 ! 19.9 !
Any violent incidents 1,600   4.7     9,900   29.5     16,900   50.6     10,200   30.4  
!Interpret data with caution. The standard error for this estimate is from 30 percent to 50 percent of the estimate's value.
‡Reporting standards not met. The standard error represents more than 50 percent of the estimate.
1Specialized school was defined for respondents as "a school that is specifically for students who were referred for disciplinary reasons, although the school may also have students who were referred for other reasons. The school may be at the same location as your school."
2Other disciplinary actions include suspension less than 5 days, detention, etc.
3Respondents were asked, "How would you describe the crime level in the area(s) in which your students live?" Response options included "high level of crime," "moderate level of crime," "low level of crime," and "students come from areas with very different levels of crime."
4Student-to-FTE ratio was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the school by the total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides. The total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides is a combination of the full-time and part-time teachers and aides, including special education teachers and aides, with an adjustment to compensate for the part-time status.
5Respondents were asked, "How many classroom changes do most students make in a typical day?" Responses exclude morning arrival and afternoon departure.
6Respondents were asked, "During the 2009–10 school year, did you have any security guards, security personnel, or sworn law enforcement officers present at your school at least once a week?"
7Serious discipline problems include student racial/ethnic tensions, student bullying, student sexual harassment of other students, student verbal abuse of teachers, widespread disorder in classrooms, student acts of disrespect for teachers other than verbal abuse, gang activities, and cult or extremist group activities. If a respondent reported that any of these problems occurred daily or weekly in their school, each was counted once in the total number of serious discipline problems.
8Transfers as a percentage of enrollment combines the number of students who were transferred to a school and the number of students who were transferred from a school divided by the total number of students enrolled in the school.
9Schoolwide disruptions include actions that disrupted school activities such as death threats, bomb threats, and chemical, biological, or radiological threats. Respondents were instructed to exclude all fire alarms, including false alarms.
10Violent incidents include rape or attempted rape, sexual battery other than rape, physical attack or fight with or without a weapon, threat of physical attack with or without a weapon, and robbery with or without a weapon.
NOTE: "At school" was defined for respondents to include activities that happen in school buildings, on school grounds, on school buses, and at places that hold school-sponsored events or activities. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. The number of incidents, students, or disciplinary actions reported for a specified offense will not always be equal. This may be because a single incident could involve multiple students or because no disciplinary action is taken for an incident. Responses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at the school.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), 2009–10 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS).