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Mathematics Literacy: Average Scores


Process Subscales

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Table M6. Average scores of 15-year-old students on PISA mathematics literacy process subscales, by education system: 2012
Formulating   Employing   Interpreting
Education system Average score s.e.   Education system Average score s.e.   Education system Average score s.e.
OECD average 492 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 0.5   OECD average 493 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 0.5   OECD average 497   0.5
Shanghai-China 624 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 4.1   Shanghai-China 613 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 3.0   Shanghai-China 579 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 2.9
Singapore 582 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 1.6   Singapore 574 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 1.2   Singapore 555 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 1.4
Chinese Taipei 578 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 4.0   Hong Kong-China 558 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 3.1   Hong Kong-China 551 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 3.4
Hong Kong-China 568 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 3.7   Korea, Republic of 553 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 4.3   Chinese Taipei 549 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 3.0
Korea, Republic of 562 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 5.1   Chinese Taipei 549 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 3.1   Liechtenstein 540 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 4.1
Japan 554 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 4.2   Liechtenstein 536 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 3.7   Korea, Republic of 540 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 4.2
Macao-China 545 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 1.4   Macao-China 536 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 1.1   Japan 531 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 3.5
Switzerland 538 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 3.1   Japan 530 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 3.5   Macao-China 530 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 1.0
Liechtenstein 535 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 4.4   Switzerland 529 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 2.9   Switzerland 529 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 3.4
Netherlands 527 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 3.8   Estonia 524 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 2.1   Finland 528 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 2.2
Finland 519 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 2.4   Vietnam 523 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 5.1   Netherlands 526 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 3.6
Estonia 517 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 2.3   Poland 519 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 3.5   Canada 521 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 2.0
Canada 516 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 2.2   Netherlands 518 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 3.4   Germany 517 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 3.2
Poland 516 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 4.2   Canada 517 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 1.9   Poland 515 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 3.5
Belgium 512 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 2.4   Germany 516 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 2.8   Australia 514 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 1.7
Germany 511 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 3.4   Belgium 516 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 2.1   Belgium 513 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 2.4
Denmark 502 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 2.4   Finland 516 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 1.8   Estonia 513 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 2.1
Iceland 500 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 1.7   Austria 510 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 2.5   New Zealand 511 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 2.5
Austria 499 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 3.2   Slovenia 505 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 1.2   France 511 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 2.5
Australia 498 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 1.9   Czech Republic 504 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 2.9   Austria 509 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 3.3
Vietnam 497 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 5.1   Ireland 502 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 2.4   Denmark 508 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 2.5
New Zealand 496 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 2.5   Australia 500 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 1.7   Ireland 507 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 2.5
Czech Republic 495 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 3.4   France 496 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 2.3   United Kingdom 501 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 3.5
Ireland 492 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 2.4   Latvia 495 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 2.8   Norway 499   3.1
Slovenia 492 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 1.5   New Zealand 495 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 2.2   Italy 498 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 2.1
Norway 489 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 3.1   Denmark 495 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 2.4   Slovenia 498 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 1.4
United Kingdom 489 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 3.7   Luxembourg 493 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 0.9   Vietnam 497   4.5
Latvia 488 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 3.0   United Kingdom 492 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 3.1   Spain 495   2.2
France 483   2.8   Iceland 490 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 1.6   Luxembourg 495   1.1
Luxembourg 482   1.0   Portugal 489   3.7   Czech Republic 494   3.0
Russian Federation 481   3.6   Russian Federation 487   3.1   Iceland 492   1.9
Slovak Republic 480   4.1   Norway 486   2.7   Portugal 490   4.0
Sweden 479   2.7   Italy 485   2.1   United States 490   3.9
Portugal 479   4.3   Slovak Republic 485   3.4   Latvia 486   3.0
Lithuania 477   3.1   Lithuania 482   2.7   Sweden 485   2.4
Spain 477   2.2   Spain 481   2.0   Croatia 477 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 3.5
United States 476   4.1   Hungary 481   3.2   Hungary 477 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 3.1
Italy 475   2.2   United States 480   3.5   Slovak Republic 473 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 3.3
Hungary 469   3.6   Croatia 478   3.7   Russian Federation 471 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 2.9
Israel 465   4.7   Sweden 474   2.5   Lithuania 471 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 2.8
Croatia 453 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 4.0   Israel 469 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 4.6   Greece 467 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 3.1
Turkey 449 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 5.2   Serbia, Republic of 451 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 3.4   Israel 462 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 5.2
Greece 448 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 2.3   Greece 449 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 2.7   Turkey 446 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 4.6
Serbia, Republic of 447 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 3.8   Turkey 448 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 5.0   Serbia, Republic of 445 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 3.4
Romania 445 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 4.1   Romania 446 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 4.1   Bulgaria 441 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 4.2
Kazakhstan 442 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 3.8   Cyprus 443 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 1.1   Romania 438 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 3.1
Bulgaria 437 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 4.2   United Arab Emirates 440 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 2.4   Cyprus 436 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 1.3
Cyprus 437 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 1.2   Bulgaria 439 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 4.1   Chile 433 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 3.1
United Arab Emirates 426 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 2.7   Kazakhstan 433 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 3.2   Thailand 432 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 3.4
Chile 420 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 3.2   Thailand 426 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 3.5   United Arab Emirates 428 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 2.4
Thailand 416 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 4.0   Malaysia 423 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 3.3   Kazakhstan 420 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 2.6
Mexico 409 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 1.7   Chile 416 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 3.3   Malaysia 418 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 3.1
Uruguay 406 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 3.2   Mexico 413 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 1.4   Costa Rica 418 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 2.9
Malaysia 406 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 3.6   Montenegro, Republic of 409 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 1.1   Montenegro, Republic of 413 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 1.4
Montenegro, Republic of 404 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 1.3   Uruguay 408 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 2.9   Mexico 413 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 1.3
Costa Rica 399 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 3.5   Costa Rica 401 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 3.4   Uruguay 409 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 2.7
Albania 398 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 1.9   Albania 397 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 2.2   Brazil 401 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 2.1
Jordan 390 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 3.4   Tunisia 390 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 4.3   Argentina 390 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 4.1
Argentina 383 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 3.5   Brazil 388 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 2.1   Colombia 388 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 2.5
Qatar 378 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 0.9   Argentina 387 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 3.4   Tunisia 385 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 3.9
Brazil 376 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 2.5   Jordan 383 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 3.4   Jordan 383 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 3.0
Colombia 375 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 3.3   Qatar 373 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 0.8   Indonesia 379 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 4.0
Tunisia 373 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 4.1   Indonesia 369 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 4.2   Albania 379 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 2.4
Peru 370 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 3.7   Peru 368 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 3.9   Qatar 375 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 0.8
Indonesia 368 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 4.6   Colombia 368 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 3.2   Peru 368 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 3.8
                           
U.S. state education systems         U.S. state education systems         U.S. state education systems      
Massachusetts 512 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 7.4   Massachusetts 509 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 5.8   Massachusetts 524 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 6.4
Connecticut 504 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 7.3   Connecticut 502 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 6.1   Connecticut 515 Average score is higher than U.S. average score 6.4
Florida 458 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 6.5   Florida 466 Average score is lower than U.S. average score 5.4   Florida 475   6.5
Average score is higher than U.S. average score Average score is higher than U.S. score.
Average score is lower than U.S. average score Average score is lower than U.S. score.
NOTE: Education systems are ordered by 2012 average subscale score. The OECD average is the average of the national averages of the OECD member countries, with each country weighted equally. All average scores reported as higher or lower than the U.S. average score are different at the05 significance level of statistical significance. Standard error is noted by s.e. Italics indicate non-OECD countries and education systems. Results for Connecticut, Florida, and Massachusetts are for public school students only.
SOURCE: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), 2012.