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Methodology and Technical Notes: 2018

This section describes features of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2018 methodology, including sample design, test design, and scoring, with focus on U.S. implementation. For further details about the assessment and any of the topics discussed here, see the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's (OECD) PISA 2018 Technical Report.

International and U.S. Response Rates