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PIRLS and ePIRLS Results

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Table 14. ePIRLS online informational reading average scale scores and differences in online informational reading average scale scores of fourth-grade students, by sex and education system: 2016
Education system Males'
online
average
score
M
▲▼
M
s.e.
Females'
online
average
score
F
▲▼
F
s.e.
Male-female
difference
in average
scores1
M-F
diff.
stat.
sig.
M-F
diff.
▲▼
M-F
diff.
s.e.
Italy 531 2.4 534 2.6 -2 | | 2.6
Portugal2 521 2.6 524 2.6 -3 | | 2.7
Denmark3 556 | 2.9 560 | 2.9 -4 | | 3.8
United States4 554 | 3.1 560 | 2.8 -6 * | 2.9
Canada2,5 539 3.7 547 3.7 -8 * | 3.8
Chinese Taipei-CHN 541 2.2 551 2.3 -9 * | 2.0
Ireland 561 | 3.4 572 2.8 -11 * | 3.6
Israel6 530 3.1 542 2.5 -11 * | 3.0
Slovenia 518 2.5 532 2.5 -14 * | 3.3
Sweden 552 | 2.7 567 | 2.6 -15 * 2.5
Georgia5 469 3.8 485 3.2 -15 * 2.5
Norway (5)7 558 | 2.9 576 2.6 -18 * 3.2
Singapore 578 3.3 599 3.2 -21 * 2.8
United Arab Emirates 454 4.1 483 3.4 -29 * 6.3
Benchmarking education systems | | | | | | | | | |
Dubai-UAE 522 2.8 534 2.7 -12 * | 4.7
Abu Dhabi-UAE 414 6.5 451 6.6 -37 * 10.6
| Blank cell.
▲ Score is higher than U.S. average score.
▼ Score is lower than U.S. average score, or the male|female difference is larger than the U.S. difference.
* p<.05. Difference in average scores is significant at the05 level of statistical significance.
1 The difference in average score is calculated by subtracting the females' estimate from the males' estimate using unrounded numbers.
2 National Defined Population covers 90 to 95 percent of the National Target Population.
3 Did not satisfy guidelines for sample participation rates.
4 Met guidelines for sample participation rates only after replacement schools were included.
5 National Target Population does not include all of the International Target Population.
6 National Defined Population covers less than 90 percent of National Target Population (but at least 77 percent).
7 The number in parentheses indicates the grade level. For ePIRLS 2016, Norway assessed students in the fifth grade to obtain better comparisons with Sweden.
NOTE: Education systems are ordered by the male-female difference in average score. Italics indicate participants identified as a non-national entity that represents a portion of a country. All average scores reported as higher or lower than the U.S. average score are different at the05 level of statistical significance. The tests for significance take into account the standard error for the reported difference. Thus, a small difference between the United States and one education system may be significant while a large apparent difference between the United States and another education system may not be significant. Standard error is abbreviated as s.e.
SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS), 2016.