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PIRLS and ePIRLS Results

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Table 9. PIRLS overall reading average scale scores and differences in overall reading average scale scores of fourth-grade students, by sex and education system: 2016
Education system Males'
average
score
M
↑↓
M
s.e.
Females'
average
score
F
↑↓
F
s.e.
Male-female
difference
in average
scores1
M-F
diff.
stat.
sig.
M-F
diff.
s.e.
Macao-CHN 545 | 1.7 546 1.6 -1 | 2.6
Portugal2 527 2.5 529 2.7 -1 | 2.7
Austria2 538 | 2.7 544 2.7 -6 * 2.4
Italy 544 | 2.4 552 | 2.7 -7 * 2.6
Chinese Taipei-CHN 555 2.3 563 2.2 -8 * 1.9
France 507 2.5 515 2.6 -8 * 2.7
United States3 545 | 3.6 553 | 3.2 -8 * 2.9
Spain 524 2.7 532 1.4 -8 * 2.5
Hong Kong-CHN2,3 564 3.1 573 2.9 -9 * 2.5
Slovak Republic 530 3.1 539 3.7 -9 * 2.7
Belgium (Flemish)-BEL 520 2.3 530 2.1 -10 * 2.0
Czech Republic 538 | 2.6 549 | 2.2 -10 * 2.4
Netherlands3 540 | 2.3 550 | 1.7 -10 * 2.2
Kazakhstan 531 2.5 542 2.8 -11 * 2.1
Belgium (French)-BEL2 492 3.4 503 2.5 -11 * 3.0
Germany 532 3.7 543 3.2 -11 * 2.9
Canada2,4 537 | 2.1 549 | 2.2 -12 * 2.2
Ireland 561 3.3 572 2.9 -12 * 3.8
Hungary 548 | 3.1 561 | 3.4 -13 * 3.1
Denmark2 541 | 2.7 554 | 2.6 -13 * 3.1
Azerbaijan 466 4.5 479 4.3 -13 * 3.0
Israel5 524 3.4 537 2.9 -13 * 3.8
Chile 487 3.2 501 2.9 -14 * 3.7
Russian Federation 574 2.6 588 2.2 -15 * 2.1
England-GBR 551 | 2.4 566 2.2 -15 * 2.8
Sweden 548 | 2.6 563 2.7 -15 * 2.5
Bulgaria 544 | 4.3 559 | 4.9 -16 * 3.4
Latvia2 549 | 2.0 566 2.1 -17 * 2.4
Singapore5 568 3.4 585 3.5 -17 * 3.0
Poland 556 2.6 574 2.5 -18 * 3.0
Northern Ireland-GBR 555 2.8 574 2.8 -18 * 3.5
Slovenia 533 2.6 552 | 2.3 -19 * 2.9
Georgia4 479 3.6 498 2.7 -19 * 3.2
Lithuania 538 | 3.3 558 | 2.7 -20 * 3.1
Malta2 442 2.2 463 2.6 -21 * 3.1
Norway (5)6 548 | 2.6 570 2.6 -21 * 2.3
Australia 534 3.0 555 | 2.6 -22 * 2.5
Finland 555 2.3 577 1.9 -22 * 2.2
New Zealand 512 3.0 533 2.4 -22 * 3.2
Trinidad and Tobago 468 4.4 490 3.8 -22 * 4.9
Morocco 344 4.4 372 4.0 -28 * 3.0
United Arab Emirates 436 4.5 465 4.2 -30 * 5.8
Kuwait 376 6.4 410 4.8 -34 * 7.7
Qatar 424 3.4 460 1.9 -36 * 4.0
Egypt 312 6.6 349 5.6 -37 * 4.8
Bahrain 424 3.5 468 2.8 -43 * 3.8
Iran, Islamic Republic of 407 5.1 452 4.5 -46 * 5.9
Oman 395 3.9 442 3.2 -46 * 3.0
South Africa 295 5.1 347 4.0 -52 * 3.0
Saudi Arabia 399 5.8 464 5.4 -65 * 7.5
Benchmarking education systems | | | | | | | | |
Andalusia-ESP 523 2.2 526 2.8 -3 | 2.8
Madrid-ESP2 545 | 2.6 553 | 2.4 -7 * 2.9
Buenos Aires-ARG 475 3.4 485 3.7 -10 * 3.7
Quebec-CAN7 542 | 3.1 552 | 3.3 -11 * 3.1
Ontario-CAN 538 | 3.8 550 | 3.6 -12 * 3.6
Dubai-UAE 509 2.8 522 3.6 -13 * 5.4
Moscow City-RUS 604 2.6 620 2.3 -16 * 2.5
Abu Dhabi-UAE 396 6.4 435 7.3 -40 * 10.2
| Blank cell.
↑ Score is higher than U.S. average score.
↓ Score is lower than U.S. average score, or the male|female difference is larger than the U.S. difference.
* p<.05. Difference in average scores is significant at the05 level of statistical significance.
1 The difference in average score is calculated by subtracting the females' estimate from the males' estimate using unrounded numbers.
2 National Defined Population covers 90 percent to 95 percent of National Target Population.
3 Met guidelines for sample participation rates only after replacement schools were included.
4 National Target Population does not include all of the International Target Population.
5 National Defined Population covers less than 90 percent of National Target Population (but at least 77 percent).
6 The number in parentheses indicates the grade level. For PIRLS 2016, Norway revised its assessed population to students in the fifth grade to obtain better comparisons with Sweden and Finland. However, in previous PIRLS cycles Norway assessed students in the fourth grade, which is similar to third grade in many other education systems because grade 1 in Norway is considered the equivalent of a year of kindergarten. To maintain trend with previous PIRLS cycles, in 2016 Norway also collected data from fourth-grade students, which is used in trend tables.
7 Did not satisfy guidelines for sample participation rates.
NOTE: Education systems are ordered by the male-female difference in average score. Italics indicate participants identified as a non-national entity that represents a portion of a country. All average scores reported as higher or lower than the U.S. average score are different at the05 level of statistical significance. The tests for significance take into account the standard error for the reported difference. Thus, a small difference between the United States and one education system may be significant, while a large apparent difference between the United States and another education system may not be significant. Education systems that did not administer PIRLS at the target grade are not shown; see the international report for their results. Five education systems participated in PIRLS Literacy (Egypt, Iran, Kuwait, Morocco, and South Africa); two of these education systems completed both PIRLS and PIRLS Literacy (Iran and Morocco). More detail on PIRLS Literacy is available at https://timssandpirls.bc.edu/pirls2016/framework.html. Standard error is abbreviated as s.e.
SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS), 2016.