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PIRLS and ePIRLS Results

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Table 5a. Change in processes of comprehension average subscale scores of fourth-grade students, by education system: 2001 to 2016 and 2011 to 2016
Education system Average
processes of
comprehension
subscale scores
———
2001
———
Retrieving and
straightforward
inferencing
2001
Ret.
↑↓
Average
processes of
comprehension
subscale scores
———
2001
———
Interpreting,
integrating, and
evaluating
2001
Int.
↑↓
Average processes of comprehension subscale scores
———
2011
———
Retrieving and
straightforward
inferencing
2011
Ret.
↑↓
Average
processes of
comprehension
subscale scores
———
2011
———
Interpreting,
integrating, and
evaluating
2011
Int.
↑↓
Average
processes of
comprehension
subscale scores
———
2016
———
Retrieving and
straightforward
inferencing
2016
Ret.
↑↓
Average
processes of
comprehension
subscale scores
———
2016
———
Interpreting,
integrating, and
evaluating
2016
Int.
↑↓
Change in
average
processes of
comprehension
subscale
scores1
——————
Score
difference:
2001 to 2016
——————
Retrieving and
straightforward
inferencing
2001
to
2016

Ret.
stat.
sig.
Change in
average
processes of
comprehension
subscale
scores1
——————
Score
difference:
2001 to 2016
——————
Interpreting,
integrating, and
evaluating
2001
to
2016

Int.
stat.
sig.
Change in
average
processes of
comprehension
subscale
scores1
——————
Score
difference:
2011 to 2016
——————
Retrieving and
straightforward
inferencing
2011
to
2016

Ret.
stat.
sig.
Change in
average
processes of
comprehension
subscale scores1
——————
Score
difference:
2011 to 2016
——————
Interpreting,
integrating, and
evaluating
2011
to
2016

Int.
stat.
sig.
Russian Federation 533 | 524 565 571 581 582 48 * 58 * 16 * 11 *
Singapore2 534 | 526 565 570 573 579 39 * 53 * 8 | 9 |
Finland | | 569 567 | 572 562 | | 3 | -5 |
Hong Kong-CHN3,4 525 530 562 578 568 568 43 * 38 * 5 | -9 *
Ireland | | 552   553 566 569 | | 14 * 16 *
Northern Ireland-GBR | | 555 562 | 562 567 | | 6 | 5 |
Sweden 565 559 543 540 560 553 | -5 | -6 | 17 * 12 *
Chinese Taipei-CHN | | 551 | 555 560 558 | | | 8 * 3 |
England-GBR 549 | 556 | 546 | 555 556 561 | 7 | 5 | 10 * 6 |
Latvia3 546 | 544 | | | 554 562 | 8 * 18 * | |
Hungary 543 | 544 | 537 542 552 | 557 | 8 * 12 * 14 * 15 *
Lithuania5 543 | 544 | 530 527 551 549 | 8 * 5 | 21 * 22 *
Czech Republic 543 | 532 548 | 544 551 538 8 * 5 | 3 | -6 *
Bulgaria 552 550 | 532 532 550 | 552 | -2 | 2 | 18 * 20 *
Austria3 | | 539 521 550 | 534 | | 11 * 14 *
Denmark3 | | 556 553 550 | 546 | | -7 * -7 *
Italy 541 | 540 | 539 544 547 | 550 | 5 | 9 * 7 * 6 *
Slovenia 506 497 533 530 547 | 539 40 * 42 * 14 * 10 *
Netherlands4 559 552 | 549 | 543 546 | 544 -13 * -7 * -2 | 1 |
Germany 545 | 535 548 | 536 546 | 530 # | -5 | -3 | -6 |
United States4 538 | 547 | 549 | 563 | 543 | 555 | 5 | 8 | -6 | -8 *
Canada3,6 | | 543 554 541 | 545 | | -2 | -8 *
Australia | | 527 529 541 | 549 | | | 14 * 20 *
Slovak Republic 524 512 534 536 538 | 531 13 * 19 * 3 | -4 |
Israel2 | | 538 543 530 530 | | -8 * -13 *
Portugal3 | | 539 542 528 526 | | -11 * -16 *
Spain | | 516 510 526 529 | | 10 * 19 *
Norway (4)7 508 492 511 502 521 513 14 * 21 * 10 * 11 *
New Zealand 525 534 527 535 521 525 -3 | -10 * -6 * -11 *
France 529 | 523 528 512 521 501 -8 * -22 * -7 * -10 *
Belgium (French)-BEL3 | | 512 499 501 494 | | -11 * -5 |
Georgia6 | | 484 491 486 490 | | 2 | -1 |
Trinidad and Tobago | | 474 464 483 472 | | 9 | 9 |
Azerbaijan | | 469 449 476 463 | | 7 | 14 *
Malta3 | | 461 451 452 451 | | -9 * # |
United Arab Emirates | | 439 438 448 453 | | 9 * 15 *
Qatar | | 424 425 442 441 | | 18 * 15 *
Iran, Islamic Republic of 423 399 458 456 429 425 7 | 26 * -28 * -32 *
Saudi Arabia | | 433 424 425 439 | | -8 | 15 *
Oman | | 395 382 419 415 | | 25 * 33 *
Morocco | | 325 288 364 336 | | 39 * 48 *
Benchmarking education systems | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
Quebec-CAN8 537 | 540 | 538 538 551 | 545 14 * 5 | 13 * 7 |
Ontario-CAN 541 | 553 | 545 | 559 | 539 | 548 | -3 | -5 | -6 | -11 *
Andalusia-ESP | | 518 510 522 527 | | 4 | 17 *
Dubai-UAE | | 478 474 512 519 | | 34 * 45 *
Abu Dhabi-UAE | | 424 425 413 417 | | -11 | -8 |
| Blank cell.
↑ Score is higher than U.S. average score.
↓ Score is lower than U.S. average score.
— Not available.
# Rounds to zero.
* p<.05. Change in average scores is significant at the05 level of statistical significance.
1 Change in average score is calculated by subtracting the 2001 or 2011 estimate, respectively, from the 2016 estimate using unrounded numbers.
2 National Defined Population covers less than 90 percent of National Target Population (but at least 77 percent).
3 National Defined Population covers 90 to 95 percent of the National Target Population.
4 Met guidelines for sample participation rates only after replacement schools were included.
5 Trend results for Lithuania do not include students taught in Polish or in Russian.
6 National Target Population does not include all of the International Target Population.
7 The number in parentheses indicates the grade level. For PIRLS 2016, Norway revised its assessed population to students in the fifth grade to obtain better comparisons with Sweden and Finland. However, in previous PIRLS cycles Norway assessed students in the fourth grade, which is similar to third grade in many other education systems because grade 1 in Norway is considered the equivalent of a year of kindergarten. To maintain trend with previous PIRLS cycles, in 2016 Norway also collected data from fourth-grade students, which is used in this trend table.
8 Did not satisfy guidelines for sample participation rates.
NOTE: Education systems are ordered by 2016 Retrieving and
straightforward
inferencing average subscale score. Italics indicate participants identified as a non-national entity that represents a portion of a country. All average scores reported as higher or lower than the U.S. average score are different at the05 level of statistical significance. The tests for significance take into account the standard error for the reported difference. Thus, a small difference between the United States and one education system may be significant, while a large apparent difference between the United States and another education system may not be significant. Education systems that did not administer PIRLS at the target grade are not shown; see the international report for their results. In 2016, Iran and Morocco participated in both PIRLS and PIRLS Literacy. More detail on PIRLS Literacy is available at https://timssandpirls.bc.edu/pirls2016/framework.html. The standard errors of the estimates shown in this table are in table 5b available at https://nces.ed.gov/surveys/pirls/pirls2016/tables/xlsx/pirls2016_table05se.xlsx.
For 2001, Lithuania, Ontario-CAN, and Quebec-CAN had a National Target Population that did not include all of the International Target Population; England-GBR and the Russian Federation had a National Defined Population that covered 90-95 percent of the National Target Population; Israel had a National Defined Population that covered less than 80 percent of the National Target Population; England-GBR, the Netherlands, and the United States met guidelines for sample participation rates only after replacement schools were included; and Morocco nearly satisfied guidelines for sample participation rates after replacement schools were included.
For 2011, Georgia and Lithuania had a National Target Population that did not include all of the International Target Population; Azerbaijan, Denmark, Canada, Lithuania, Qatar, Singapore, the United States, Belgium (French)-BEL, and Ontario-CAN had a National Defined Population that covered 90-95 percent of the National Target Population; Hong Kong-CHN and Israel had a National Defined Population that covered less than 90 percent of the National Target Population (but at least 77 percent); England-GBR, the Netherlands, Norther Ireland-GBR, and Belgium (French)-BEL met guidelines for sample participation rates only after replacement schools were included; Norway (4) nearly satisfied guidelines for sample participation rates after replacement schools were included; in Oman there were reservations about reliability because the percentage of students with achievement too low to estimate exceed 15 percent, though it was less than 25 percent; in Morocco there were reservations about reliability because the percentage of students with achievement too low to estimate exceeded 25 percent.
SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS), 2001, 2011, and 2016.