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PIRLS and ePIRLS Results

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Table 4a. Change in purposes for reading average subscale scores of fourth-grade students, by education system: 2001 to 2016 and 2011 to 2016
Education system Purposes
for reading
subscale
scores
———
2001
———

Literary experience
2001
Lit.
↑↓
Purposes
for reading
subscale
scores
———
2001
———
Acquire
and use
information
2001
Acq.
↑↓
Purposes
for reading
subscale
scores
———
2011
———

Literary experience
2011
Lit.
↑↓
Purposes
for reading
subscale
scores
———
2011
———
Acquire
and use
information
2011
Acq.
↑↓
Purposes
for reading
subscale
scores
———
2016
———

Literary experience
2016
Lit.
↑↓
Purposes
for reading
subscale
scores
———
2016
———
Acquire
and use
information
2016
Acq.
↑↓
Change in
purposes
for reading
subscale
scores1
——————
Score
difference:
2001 to 2016
——————

Literary
experience
2001 to 2016

Lit.
stat.
sig.
Change in
purposes
for reading
subscale
scores1
——————
Score
difference:
2001 to 2016
——————
Acquire
and use
information
2001 to 2016

Acq.
stat.
sig.
Change in
purposes
for reading
subscale
scores1
——————
Score
difference:
2011 to 2016
——————

Literary
experience
2011 to 2016

Lit.
stat.
sig.
Change in
purposes
for reading
subscale
scores1
——————
Score
difference:
2011 to 2016
——————
Acquire
and use
information
2011 to 2016

Acq.
stat.
sig.
Russian Federation 526 530 | 567 | 570 579 584 53 * 54 * 12 * 15 *
Singapore2 531 528 | 567 | 569 575 579 44 * 51 * 8 | 9 *
Ireland | | 557 | 549 | 571 565 | | 14 * 16 *
Northern Ireland-GBR | | 564 | 555 | 570 561 | | 7 | 6 |
Finland | | 568 568 565 569 | | -4 | 1 |
England-GBR 561 | 548 553 549 | 563 | 556 1 | 8 * 10 * 7 *
Hong Kong-CHN3,4 520 537 | 565 | 578 562 | 576 42 * 40 * -2 | -1 |
Hungary 551 | 537 | 542 536 558 | 551 | 6 | 14 * 16 * 15 *
United States4 552 | 534 | 563 | 553 | 557 | 543 | 5 | 9 | -5 | -10 *
Sweden 562 560 547 537 556 | 555 -6 | -5 | 9 * 18 *
Latvia3 540 548 | | 555 | 561 15 * 14 * | |
Bulgaria 551 | 551 532 533 551 | 554 # | 3 | 20 * 21 *
Denmark3 | | 555 553 | 551 | 543 | | | -4 | -10 *
Lithuania5 548 | 539 | 529 527 549 553 1 | 13 * 20 * 25 *
Italy 546 | 537 | 539 545 549 549 | 3 | 12 * 10 * 4 |
Chinese Taipei-CHN | | 542 565 548 569 | | 7 * 4 |
Canada3,6 | | 553 545 547 540 | | | -6 * -5 *
Australia | | 527 528 547 543 | | | 20 * 15 *
Netherlands4 555 | 554 545 547 546 545 | -8 * -10 * 2 | -3 |
Czech Republic 538 536 | 545 545 545 541 | 7 * 6 | # | -4 |
Austria3 | | 533 526 544 539 | | | 12 * 13 *
Germany 539 539 | 545 538 542 533 3 | -6 | -2 | -5 |
Slovenia 501 502 532 528 541 544 | 40 * 42 * 9 * 17 *
Slovak Republic 514 522 540 530 539 531 24 * 9 * -1 | 1 |
Israel2 | | 542 541 532 529 | | -9 * -12 *
Spain | | 516 512 530 527 | | 14 * 15 *
Portugal3 | | 538 544 528 528 | | -10 * -15 *
New Zealand 535 526 | 533 530 525 520 -9 | -5 | -8 * -9 *
Norway (4)7 507 491 508 505 520 514 13 * 22 * 13 * 9 *
France 519 532 | 521 519 513 510 -6 | -22 * -9 * -9 *
Belgium (French)-BEL3 | | 508 504 504 490 | | -4 | -13 *
Georgia6 | | 491 482 490 486 | | -1 | 4 |
Trinidad and Tobago | | 467 474 478 480 | | 11 * 6 |
Azerbaijan | | 461 460 464 475 | | 3 | 15 *
Malta3 | | 458 455 452 451 | | -6 * -4 |
United Arab Emirates | | 427 452 440 460 | | 13 * 7 |
Qatar | | 415 436 434 450 | | 19 * 14 *
Iran, Islamic Republic of 420 403 459 455 430 425 10 | 22 * -29 * -30 *
Saudi Arabia | | 422 440 430 429 | | 8 | -11 |
Oman | | 379 404 411 425 | | 31 * 22 *
Morocco | | 299 321 353 359 | | 54 * 38 *
Benchmarking education systems | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |
Quebec-CAN8 536 542 | 539 536 550 | 547 | 14 * 4 | 10 * 11 *
Ontario-CAN 554 | 544 | 558 | 549 | 549 | 539 | -5 | -4 | -10 * -9 *
Andalusia-ESP | | 518 512 526 524 | | 8 * 11 *
Dubai-UAE | | 466 488 508 523 | | 42 * 35 *
Abu Dhabi-UAE | | 414 437 406 422 | | -8 | -15 *
| Blank cell.
↑ Score is higher than U.S. average score.
↓ Score is lower than U.S. average score.
— Not available.
# Rounds to zero.
* p<.05. Change in average scores is significant at the05 level of statistical significance.
1 Change in average score is calculated by subtracting the 2001 or 2011 estimate, respectively, from the 2016 estimate using unrounded numbers.
2 National Defined Population covers less than 90 percent of National Target Population (but at least 77 percent).
3 National Defined Population covers 90 to 95 percent of the National Target Population.
4 Met guidelines for sample participation rates only after replacement schools were included.
5 Trend results for Lithuania do not include students taught in Polish or in Russian.
6 National Target Population does not include all of the International Target Population.
7 The number in parentheses indicates the grade level. For PIRLS 2016, Norway revised its assessed population to students in the fifth grade to obtain better comparisons with Sweden and Finland. However, in previous PIRLS cycles Norway assessed students in the fourth grade, which is similar to third grade in many other education systems because grade 1 in Norway is considered the equivalent of a year of kindergarten. To maintain trend with previous PIRLS cycles, in 2016 Norway also collected data from fourth-grade students, which is used in this trend table.
8 Did not satisfy guidelines for sample participation rates.
NOTE: Education systems are ordered by 2016 literary experience average subscale score. Italics indicate participants identified as a non-national entity that represents a portion of a country. All average scores reported as higher or lower than the U.S. average score are different at the05 level of statistical significance. The tests for significance take into account the standard error for the reported difference. Thus, a small difference between the United States and one education system may be significant, while a large apparent difference between the United States and another education system may not be significant. Education systems that did not administer PIRLS at the target grade are not shown; see the international report for their results. In 2016, Iran and Morocco participated in both PIRLS and PIRLS Literacy. More detail on PIRLS Literacy is available at https://timssandpirls.bc.edu/pirls2016/framework.html. The standard errors of the estimates shown in this table are in table 4b available at https://nces.ed.gov/surveys/pirls/pirls2016/tables/xlsx/pirls2016_table04se.xlsx.
For 2001, Lithuania, Ontario-CAN, and Quebec-CAN had a National Target Population that did not include all of the International Target Population; England-GBR and the Russian Federation had a National Defined Population that covered 90-95 percent of the National Target Population; Israel had a National Defined Population that covered less than 80 percent of the National Target Population; England-GBR, the Netherlands, and the United States met guidelines for sample participation rates only after replacement schools were included; and Morocco nearly satisfied guidelines for sample participation rates after replacement schools were included.
For 2011, Georgia and Lithuania had a National Target Population that did not include all of the International Target Population; Azerbaijan, Denmark, Canada, Lithuania, Qatar, Singapore, the United States, Belgium (French)-BEL, and Ontario-CAN had a National Defined Population that covered 90-95 percent of the National Target Population; Hong Kong-CHN and Israel had a National Defined Population that covered less than 90 percent of the National Target Population (but at least 77 percent); England-GBR, the Netherlands, Norther Ireland-GBR, and Belgium (French)-BEL met guidelines for sample participation rates only after replacement schools were included; Norway (4) nearly satisfied guidelines for sample participation rates after replacement schools were included; in Oman there were reservations about reliability because the percentage of students with achievement too low to estimate exceed 15 percent, though it was less than 25 percent; in Morocco there were reservations about reliability because the percentage of students with achievement too low to estimate exceeded 25 percent.
SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS), 2001, 2011, and 2016.