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PIRLS and ePIRLS Results

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Figure 1. Percentage of fourth-grade students reaching the PIRLS international benchmarks in reading, by education system: 2016


Percentage of students reaching each ePIRLS international benchmark
Education system Advanced
(625)
Adv.
▲▼
Adv.
s.e.
High
(550)
High
▲▼
High
s.e.
Inter-
mediate
(475)
Int.
▲▼
Int.
s.e.
Low
(400)
Low
▲▼
Low
s.e.
 
Singapore1 29 1.6 66 1.6 89 1.0 97 | 0.5 Visual/Graphic representation of Singapore's data
Russian Federation 26 1.2 70 1.3 94 0.6 99 0.3 Visual/Graphic representation of Russian Federation's data
Northern Ireland-GBR 22 1.4 61 1.3 87 0.8 97 | 0.4 Visual/Graphic representation of Northern Ireland GBR's data
Ireland 21 1.2 62 1.6 89 0.9 98 0.4 Visual/Graphic representation of Ireland's data
Poland 20 1.1 61 1.3 89 0.7 98 0.4 Visual/Graphic representation of Poland's data
England-GBR 20 0.9 57 1.1 86 | 0.7 97 | 0.4 Visual/Graphic representation of England GBR's data
Bulgaria 19 | 1.3 55 | 2.2 83 | 1.6 95 | 0.9 Visual/Graphic representation of Bulgaria's data
Hong Kong-CHN2,3 18 | 1.3 65 1.8 93 0.9 99 0.3 Visual/Graphic representation of Hong Kong CHN's data
Finland 18 | 0.8 62 1.3 91 0.8 98 0.3 Visual/Graphic representation of Finland's data
Hungary 17 | 1.2 56 | 1.7 85 | 1.0 97 | 0.5 Visual/Graphic representation of Hungary's data
United States3 16 | 1.3 53 | 1.6 83 | 1.2 96 | 0.5 Visual/Graphic representation of United States' data
Australia 16 | 1.0 51 | 1.4 81 | 1.0 94 0.5 Visual/Graphic representation of Australia's data
Norway (5)4 15 | 0.9 58 1.7 90 0.9 99 0.3 Visual/Graphic representation of Norway's data
Chinese Taipei-CHN 14 | 1.1 59 1.5 90 0.7 98 0.2 Visual/Graphic representation of Chinese Taipei CHN's data
Sweden 14 | 1.4 57 | 1.6 88 0.9 98 0.3 Visual/Graphic representation of Sweden's data
Latvia2 14 | 1.0 57 | 1.3 90 0.8 99 0.2 Visual/Graphic representation of Latvia's data
Israel1 13 0.9 46 1.3 75 1.0 91 0.7 Visual/Graphic representation of Israel's data
Canada2,5 13 0.7 50 | 1.0 83 | 0.9 96 | 0.4 Visual/Graphic representation of Canada's data
Lithuania 12 0.9 52 | 1.6 86 | 1.1 97 | 0.5 Visual/Graphic representation of Lithuania's data
Slovenia 11 0.8 49 | 1.3 83 | 0.9 96 | 0.5 Visual/Graphic representation of Slovenia's data
Denmark2 11 1.0 52 | 1.3 86 | 1.0 97 | 0.4 Visual/Graphic representation of Denmark's data
New Zealand 11 0.6 41 1.2 73 1.0 90 0.7 Visual/Graphic representation of New Zealand's data
Germany 11 0.8 47 1.4 81 | 1.4 95 | 1.0 Visual/Graphic representation of Germany's data
Italy 11 0.8 52 | 1.7 87 1.0 98 0.5 Visual/Graphic representation of Italy's data
Slovak Republic 10 0.8 47 1.4 81 | 1.3 93 1.1 Visual/Graphic representation of Slovak Republic's data
Czech Republic 10 0.7 49 | 1.3 85 | 0.9 97 | 0.5 Visual/Graphic representation of Czech Republic's data
Macao-CHN 10 0.6 50 | 0.8 86 0.5 98 0.3 Visual/Graphic representation of Macao CHN's data
Austria2 8 0.8 47 1.5 84 | 1.1 98 0.4 Visual/Graphic representation of Austria's data
Netherlands3 8 0.6 48 1.3 88 0.9 99 0.3 Visual/Graphic representation of Netherlands's data
Kazakhstan 7 0.8 42 1.8 84 | 1.5 98 0.3 Visual/Graphic representation of Kazakhstan's data
Portugal2 7 0.9 38 1.3 79 1.3 97 | 0.4 Visual/Graphic representation of Portugal's data
Spain 6 0.4 39 0.9 80 1.0 97 | 0.6 Visual/Graphic representation of Spain's data
United Arab Emirates 5 0.3 20 1.0 43 1.4 68 1.3 Visual/Graphic representation of United Arab Emirates's data
Trinidad and Tobago 4 0.5 24 1.2 55 1.7 80 1.2 Visual/Graphic representation of Trinidad and Tobago's data
Belgium (Flemish)-BEL 4 0.4 35 1.3 80 | 1.3 97 0.4 Visual/Graphic representation of Belgium (Flemish) BEL's data
France 4 0.6 30 1.3 72 1.2 94 0.5 Visual/Graphic representation of France's data
Chile 3 0.4 25 1.3 61 1.5 87 1.1 Visual/Graphic representation of Chile's data
Qatar 3 0.3 17 0.6 42 1.1 66 0.9 Visual/Graphic representation of Qatar's data
Belgium (French)-BEL2 3 0.4 22 1.2 65 1.4 92 0.9 Visual/Graphic representation of Belgium (French) BEL's data
Georgia5 2 0.4 22 1.3 60 1.6 86 1.1 Visual/Graphic representation of Georgia's data
Bahrain 2 0.3 14 0.6 41 1.0 69 1.0 Visual/Graphic representation of Bahrain's data
Oman 2 0.3 10 0.8 32 1.3 59 1.3 Visual/Graphic representation of Oman's data
Azerbaijan 2 0.3 18 1.1 54 2.0 81 1.7 Visual/Graphic representation of Azerbaijan's data
Iran, Islamic Republic of 1 0.2 11 0.6 37 1.3 65 1.5 Visual/Graphic representation of Iran, Islamic Republic of's data
Saudi Arabia 1 0.4 11 1.2 35 1.7 63 1.8 Visual/Graphic representation of Saudi Arabia's data
Malta2 1 0.2 13 0.7 45 1.1 73 0.7 Visual/Graphic representation of Malta's data
Kuwait 1 0.2 6 0.8 22 1.5 51 1.7 Visual/Graphic representation of Kuwait's data
Egypt # 3 0.4 11 1.2 31 1.8 Visual/Graphic representation of Egypt's data
Morocco # 3 0.4 14 0.8 36 1.5 Visual/Graphic representation of Morocco's data
South Africa # 2 0.4 8 1.0 22 1.5 Visual/Graphic representation of South Africa's data
International median 10 0.0 47 0.0 82   0.0 96   0.0 Visual/Graphic representation of International median's data
Benchmarking education systems | | | | | | | | | | | |  
Moscow City-RUS 43 1.5 84 1.0 98 0.3 100 0.1 Visual/Graphic representation of Moscow City RUS's data
Ontario-CAN 14 | 1.5 50 | 1.7 82 | 1.4 96 | 0.6 Visual/Graphic representation of Ontario CAN's data
Quebec-CAN6 11 1.2 50 | 1.8 87 | 1.5 98 0.4 Visual/Graphic representation of Quebec CAN's data
Dubai-UAE 11 0.6 40 1.0 69 0.9 87 0.6 Visual/Graphic representation of Dubai UAE's data
Madrid-ESP2 9 0.7 51 | 1.4 89 0.9 99 0.3 Visual/Graphic representation of Madrid ESP's data
Andalusia-ESP 5 0.5 37 1.2 78 1.2 97 | 0.7 Visual/Graphic representation of Andalusia ESP's data
Buenos Aires-ARG 3 0.4 20 1.1 55 1.5 83 1.4 Visual/Graphic representation of Buenos Aires ARG's data
Abu Dhabi-UAE 2 0.4 11 1.1 31 1.7 55 2.1 Visual/Graphic representation of Abu Dhabi UAE's data
                          Visual/Graphic representation of the legend.
| Blank cell.
▲ Percentage is higher than the U.S. percentage at the same benchmark.
▼ Percentage is lower than the U.S. percentage at the same benchmark.
# Rounds to zero.
† Not applicable.
1 National Defined Population covers less than 90 percent of National Target Population (but at least 77 percent).
2 National Defined Population covers 90 to 95 percent of the National Target Population.
3 Met guidelines for sample participation rates only after replacement schools were included.
4 The number in parentheses indicates the grade level. For PIRLS 2016, Norway revised its assessed population to students in the fifth grade to obtain better comparisons with Sweden and Finland. However, in previous PIRLS cycles Norway assessed students in the fourth grade, which is similar to third grade in many other education systems because grade 1 in Norway is considered the equivalent of a year of kindergarten. To maintain trend with previous PIRLS cycles, in 2016 Norway also collected data from fourth-grade students, which is used in trend tables.
5 National Target Population does not include all of the International Target Population.
6 Did not satisfy guidelines for sample participation rates.
NOTE: Education systems are ordered by the percentage of students reaching the Advanced international benchmark. Italics indicate participants identified as a non-national entity that represents a portion of a country. The international median represents all participating PIRLS education systems, including the United States. The international median represents the percentage at which half of the PIRLS education systems have that percentage of students at or above the median and half have that percentage of students below the median. Benchmarking participants are not included in the international median. All percentages reported as higher or lower than the U.S. percentage are different at the05 level of statistical significance. The tests for significance take into account the standard error for the reported difference. Thus, a small difference between the United States and one education system may be significant, while a large apparent difference between the United States and another education system may not be significant. Education systems that did not administer PIRLS at the target grade are not shown; see the international report for their results. Five education systems participated in PIRLS Literacy (Egypt, Iran, Kuwait, Morocco, and South Africa); two of these education systems completed both PIRLS and PIRLS Literacy (Iran and Morocco). More detail on PIRLS Literacy is available at https://timssandpirls.bc.edu/pirls2016/framework.html. Standard error is abbreviated as s.e.
SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS), 2016.