Not all countries are able to conduct PIAAC in the same time frame. To accommodate different countries’ schedules, the OECD organizes different rounds of PIAAC data collections within the same assessment cycle. The same study instruments are used for all participants in all rounds of the assessment cycle.
U.S. Participation in PIAAC
During the first decade of PIAAC, or Cycle I, the OECD organized three rounds of data collection using the same study instruments: 25 countries participated in the first round of data collection, completed in 2012; 9 additional countries participated in the second round, completed in 2014; and 5 more countries participated in the third round, completed in 2017. In total, 39 countries participated during in PIAAC Cycle I, including the United States, which collected data during all three rounds.
For the second decade of PIAAC, or Cycle II, the OECD has updated PIAAC’s study instruments. The first round of the Cycle II data collection is scheduled to be completed in 2023, with 33 countries participating.
The tables below detail the schedule for each cycle and round of data collection, along with the products and publications associated with completed PIAAC rounds.
|June 2021 – August 2021||Field test of data collection in 33 countries||Field test of household data collection in the United States|
|September 2022 – March 2023||OECD PIAAC data collection in 33 countries||Household data collection in the United States|
|April 2023 – Fall 2024||Analysis and report preparation||Analysis and report preparation|
|Fall 2024||International release of results from Cycle II, Round 1||U.S. Release of results from Cycle II, Round 1|
The first round of the PIAAC Cycle II data collection in the United States is scheduled for August 2022 through March 2023 with a nationally representative household sample of 5,000 adults, ages 16–74.
|September 2010 – December 2010||Field test of data collection in 24 countries||Field test of household data collection in the United States|
|August 2011 – April 2012||OECD PIAAC data collection in 24 countries||First round of household data collection in the United States|
|October 2012 – September 2013||Analysis and report preparation||Analysis and report preparation|
|October 2013 – May 2014||
International PIAAC Round 1 results released
U.S. PIAAC Round 1 results released
The first round of the PIAAC Cycle I data collection in the United States (officially known as the U.S. PIAAC Main Study) was conducted between August 2011 and April 2012 with a nationally representative household sample of 5,100 adults, ages 16–65.
|April 2013 – June 2013||Field test of data collection in 9 countries||—|
|August 2013 – May 2014||—||Household data collection in the United States|
|February 2014 – December 2014||OECD PIAAC data collection in 9 countries1||Data collection for the U.S. Prison Study2|
|August 2014 – May 2016||Analysis and report preparation3||Analysis and report preparation4|
|March 2016 – June 2018||
International PIAAC Round 2 results released
U.S. PIAAC 2012/2014 results released
The second round of the PIAAC Cycle I data collection in the United States (officially known as the National Supplement to the Main Study) was conducted from August 2013 through April 2014. It was administered to a sample of 3,660 U.S. adults in households in order to (a) enhance the U.S. PIAAC dataset by oversampling young adults (ages 16–34) and unemployed adults; and (b) expand the sample to include older adults (ages 66–74). The combined 2012/2014 U.S. PIAAC data, with a sample of approximately 8,760 adults living in U.S. households, support more accurate and reliable national estimates for these subgroups and, in the case of older adults (ages 66–74), provide estimates for a group not represented in the first round of the U.S. sample.
Prison Data Collection
As part of the second round of the PIAAC Cycle I data collection in the United States, the U.S. PIAAC Prison Study was conducted from February 2014 through June 2014 with a sample of approximately 1,300 adult inmates (ages 18–74) detained in federal and state prisons in the United States. While the PIAAC assessment was the same as that administered to household participants, the prison background questionnaire was tailored specifically to address the experiences and needs of the inmate population. For example, the prison background questionnaire included items on participation in academic programs and English as a second language (ESL) classes; experiences with prison jobs; and involvement in nonacademic programs, such as employment readiness classes. Consequently, while the assessment results for the prison and household populations are directly comparable, the background characteristics collected differ in many respects.
1 April 2014–December 2014
2 February 2014–May 2014
3 March 2015–May 2016
4 August 2014–February 2016
|March 2017 – September 2017||OECD PIAAC data collection in 5 countries||Household data collection in the United States|
|September 2018 – August 2019||Analysis and report preparation||Analysis and report preparation|
|November 2019 – April 2020||
International PIAAC Round 3 Results Released
U.S. PIAAC 2017 Results Released
The third round of the PIAAC Cycle I data collection in the United States, conducted from March 2017 through September 2017, surveyed a nationally representative household sample of 3,660 adults between the ages of 16 and 74. The results from the 2017 data collection provide a second point in time for comparison with the 2012/2014 results. In addition, the combined 2017 and 2012/2014 data (total of 12,420 adults) supported the calculation and development of U.S. state and county estimates of literacy and numeracy.