Table C.3.12a. Average fourth-grade mathematics scores, by content and cognitive domain, index of time spent doing mathematics homework, and country: 2007

Mathematics overall   Content domain1   Cognitive domain2   Index of time spent doing mathematics homework (TMH) in a normal school week3
Number   Geometric shapes and measures   Data display   Knowing   Applying   Reasoning

High TMH   Medium TMH   Low TMH
Jurisdiction Average score s.e.   Average score s.e.   Average score s.e.   Average score s.e.   Average score s.e.   Average score s.e.   Average score s.e.   Percent of students s.e. Average score s.e.   Percent of students s.e. Average score s.e.   Percent of students s.e. Average score s.e.
International average               21 0.2 469 1.0   58 0.2 479 0.7   21 0.2 468 1.5

Algeria4 378 5.2   391 5.0   383 4.5   361 5.2   384 5.4   376 5.2   387 4.7   35 1.7 397 6.6   54 1.5 385 6.0   11 1.0 373 9.1
Armenia4 500 4.3   522 4.0   483 4.7   458 4.3   518 4.8   493 4.1   489 4.7   31 1.5 510 5.3   64 1.4 503 3.7   5 0.7 509 24.8
Australia 516 3.5   496 3.7   536 3.1   534 3.1   509 4.2   523 3.5   516 3.4   7 0.7 508 10.6   42 1.5 517 3.9   51 1.8 525 4.4
Austria 505 2.0   502 2.2   509 2.4   508 2.6   505 2.0   507 1.8   506 2.1   16 0.8 493 3.9   76 1.0 511 2.1   8 0.8 501 5.0
Chinese Taipei 576 1.7   581 1.9   556 2.2   567 2.0   584 1.7   569 1.7   566 1.9   17 0.9 568 4.0   63 1.4 584 1.7   20 1.3 569 3.8

Colombia4 355 5.0   360 4.3   361 4.8   363 5.9   360 5.2   357 5.1   372 4.9   29 1.5 384 5.5   58 1.4 369 4.8   13 1.4 354 6.9
Czech Republic 486 2.8   482 2.8   494 2.8   493 3.3   473 2.4   496 2.7   493 3.4   8 0.6 473 4.7   65 2.0 489 2.9   28 1.9 491 4.6
Denmark5 523 2.4   509 2.9   544 2.6   529 3.4   513 2.7   528 2.5   524 2.1   23 1.2 514 3.3   52 1.2 524 2.7   25 1.4 538 3.8
El Salvador4 330 4.1   317 3.9   333 4.3   367 3.5   312 4.1   339 3.7   356 4.0   24 1.2 345 6.3   62 1.2 340 4.6   14 1.1 346 6.5
England 541 2.9   531 3.2   548 2.7   547 2.5   544 3.6   540 3.1   537 3.1   3 0.4 525 11.2   31 1.6 547 5.0   66 1.6 544 2.9

Georgia4,6 438 4.2   464 3.8   415 4.8   414 4.6   450 4.0   433 4.5   437 4.2   27 1.5 451 5.6   71 1.5 449 4.4   2 0.4
Germany4 525 2.3   521 2.2   528 2.0   534 3.1   514 2.0   531 2.2   528 2.5   19 0.8 517 3.4   76 0.9 534 2.4   5 0.6 496 10.0
Hong Kong SAR7 607 3.6   606 3.8   599 3.1   585 2.7   617 3.5   599 3.4   589 3.5   18 1.1 599 6.2   78 1.1 613 3.5   4 0.5 562 6.2
Hungary 510 3.5   510 3.7   510 3.3   504 3.5   511 3.4   507 3.5   509 3.8   21 1.0 517 4.3   75 1.1 518 3.5   4 0.7 493 16.6
Iran, Islamic Republic of 402 4.1   398 3.6   429 3.3   400 4.0   410 3.6   405 3.7   410 3.8   34 1.7 424 5.8   51 1.6 401 4.5   15 1.4 386 6.9

Italy 507 3.1   505 3.2   509 3.0   506 3.4   514 3.2   501 2.9   509 3.1   18 1.3 498 4.7   62 1.6 508 3.8   19 1.8 515 3.9
Japan 568 2.1   561 2.2   566 2.2   578 2.8   565 2.1   566 2.0   563 2.1   11 0.9 542 4.6   64 1.9 573 2.4   25 1.9 572 3.5
Kazakhstan6 549 7.1   556 6.6   542 7.4   522 5.8   559 7.3   547 7.2   539 6.1   42 2.0 549 9.3   56 1.9 552 7.3   2 0.3
Kuwait4,8 316 3.6   321 3.5   316 3.6   318 4.7   326 4.6   305 4.1     17 0.9 313 6.4   63 1.7 336 3.8   20 1.4 350 6.9
Latvia6 537 2.3   536 2.1   532 2.6   536 3.0   530 2.2   540 2.5   537 2.5   34 1.3 534 3.2   65 1.3 545 2.6   1 0.2

Lithuania6 530 2.4   533 2.3   518 2.4   530 2.9   520 2.8   539 2.4   526 2.5   29 1.3 526 3.5   68 1.3 537 2.5   3 0.5 530 10.7
Morocco4 341 4.7   353 4.7   365 4.3   316 6.1   354 4.8   346 4.7     24 1.6 360 9.1   61 1.9 352 5.3   16 1.7 350 12.7
Netherlands9 535 2.1   535 2.2   522 2.3   543 2.3   525 2.2   540 2.0   534 2.4   1 0.2   10 0.9 507 4.7   89 0.9 541 2.3
New Zealand 492 2.3   478 2.7   502 2.3   513 2.6   482 2.5   495 2.3   503 2.8   8 0.5 469 5.3   38 1.1 487 3.7   54 1.4 509 2.4
Norway 473 2.5   461 2.8   490 3.0   487 2.6   461 2.9   479 2.8   489 2.7   12 1.0 465 7.4   53 1.8 478 2.9   35 2.1 487 3.4

Qatar10 296 1.0   292 1.2   296 1.4   326 1.6   293 1.3   296 1.2     20 0.6 301 3.1   61 0.7 315 2.3   19 0.5 311 3.3
Russian Federation 544 4.9   546 4.4   538 5.1   530 4.9   538 4.5   547 4.8   540 4.8   37 1.4 541 5.7   61 1.3 550 5.0   1 0.3
Scotland5 494 2.2   481 2.6   503 2.6   516 2.2   489 2.6   500 2.4   497 2.2   3 0.3 453 10.7   30 1.7 484 3.1   67 1.8 505 2.9
Singapore 599 3.7   611 4.3   570 3.7   583 3.2   620 4.0   590 3.7   578 3.8   34 0.9 607 4.4   52 0.9 603 3.7   15 0.8 581 5.6
Slovak Republic 496 4.5   495 3.9   499 4.3   492 4.2   492 3.9   498 4.0   499 4.0   10 0.6 481 4.0   79 1.2 508 3.2   11 1.0 496 9.1

Slovenia 502 1.8   485 1.9   522 1.8   518 2.5   497 1.8   504 1.9   505 2.1   19 0.9 487 3.2   79 1.0 510 2.1   3 0.3 479 9.0
Sweden 503 2.5   490 2.5   508 2.3   529 2.7   482 2.5   508 2.2   519 2.5   5 0.6 472 6.4   34 1.2 493 2.9   60 1.4 513 3.0
Tunisia4 327 4.5   352 4.5   334 4.5   307 4.8   343 4.9   329 4.8     33 1.7 362 5.5   53 1.4 352 4.8   14 1.2 342 7.7
Ukraine 469 2.9   480 2.9   457 2.8   462 3.2   472 3.0   466 3.1   474 3.2   37 1.3 475 3.3   61 1.3 475 3.4   1 0.2
United States5,11 529 2.4   524 2.7   522 2.5   543 2.4   541 2.6   524 2.6   523 2.2   12 0.5 522 3.6   65 1.2 535 2.8   23 1.3 528 3.2
Yemen10 224 6.0               30 2.4 243 9.7   64 2.5 245 6.6   6 1.0 218 11.8
 — Not available. † Not applicable. ‡ Reporting standards not met. 1 Number includes whole numbers, fractions and decimals, number sentences, and patterns and relationships. Geometric shapes and measures includes lines and angles, two- and three-dimensional shapes, and location and movement. Data display includes reading and interpreting, and organizing and representing. 2 Knowing addresses the facts, procedures, and concepts that students need to know to function mathematically. Applying focuses on students' ability to apply knowledge and conceptual understanding in order to solve problems or answer questions. Reasoning goes beyond the cognitive processes involved in solving routine problems to include unfamiliar situations, complex contexts, and multistep problems. 3 High TMH indicates more than 30 minutes of mathematics homework assigned 3-4 times per week. Medium TMH includes all possible combinations of responses not included in the high or low categories. Low TMH indicates no more than 30 minutes of mathematics homework assigned no more than 2 times per week. TMH index data are provided by students. 4 For the TMH index, data are available for for at least 70 percent but less than 85 percent of the students. 5 Met guidelines for sample participation rates only after substitute schools were included. 6 National Target Population does not include all of the International Target Population defined by the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Eighth-Grade Students in an International Context 7 Hong Kong is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People's Republic of China. 8 Kuwait tested the same cohort of students as other countries, but later in 2007, at the beginning of the next school year. 9 Nearly satisfied guidelines for sample participation rates only after substitute schools were included. 10 For the TMH index, data are available for at least 50 percent but less than 70 percent of the students. 11 National Defined Population covers 90 to 95 percent of National Target Population. NOTE: TIMSS scores are reported on a scale from 0 to 1,000, with the scale average fixed at 500 and the standard deviation fixed at 100. Countries were required to sample students in the grade that corresponded to the end of 4 years of formal schooling, providing that the mean age at the time of testing was at least 9.5 years. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. Standard errors are noted by s.e. SOURCE: Data from the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), 2007. Snyder, T.D., and Dillow, S.A. (2010). Digest of Education Statistics 2009 (NCES 2010-013), table 405. National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S Department of Education. Washington, DC.