Does taking college preparatory math coursework in high school impact unemployment in midlife?
Those who took Algebra II or higher in high school had lower unemployment at midlife, even after controlling for whether they completed a bachelor's degree. Additionally, women who earned higher GPAs were employed at higher rates and men who scored higher on math achievement tests were employed at higher rates.
Is there a difference between the percentage of male workers and female workers who held jobs with low pay and/or no health or retirement benefits at midlife?
The percentage of workers who held jobs with low pay and/or no health or retirement benefits was higher for women than for men, even among workers with similar levels of educational attainment. However, this gender gap was smaller among people who had taken advanced math coursework in high school (i.e., Algebra II or above).
Gaps in educational attainment by gender, race/ethnicity, and parental education observed in early adulthood remained largely unchanged in midlife. What is a notable exception to this finding?
A higher proportion of cohort adults whose parents had higher levels of education enrolled in graduate school between the ages of 28 and 50, which may be related to high school academic achievement (e.g., grades, test scores).
What was the most common living arrangement 2 years out of high school and how has this changed over time?
Across high school cohorts spanning 4 decades, the most common living arrangement for young adults approximately 2 years out of high school was to live with their parents. The percentage of young adults living with their parents was 39 percent in 1974, 50 percent in 1982, 51 percent in 1994, and 46 percent in 2006.
How does coming to class prepared (based on saying they "never" or "rarely" attended class without paper/pencil or books) affect dropout rates across the cohorts?
For those sophomores coming to class prepared, dropout rates were lower in 1992 and 2004 (6 percent each) than in 1982 (8 percent). Additionally, dropout rates declined for sophomores coming to class unprepared: for example, the rate was 9 percent in 2004 and 19 percent in 1982 for those saying they "often" or "sometimes" came to class without books.
High School and Beyond Midlife (Fifth Follow-up) data are available! Read the NCES Blog post to learn more.
HS&B data are now available in DataLab! Use restricted-use data from the study to quickly create your own tables in QuickStats and run your own analyses in PowerStats
- Nationally representative, longitudinal study of 10th and 12th graders in 1980
- Follow-up surveys conducted throughout their postsecondary years
- Surveys of students, teachers, and parents of sampled students
- High school and postsecondary transcripts to enhance analyse
- What are students’ trajectories after leaving high school into postsecondary education, the workforce, and beyond?
- What factors influence the students’ educational and career outcomes after passing through the American educational system?
HS&B Collection Waves
- Base Year (1980) – Available now
- First Follow-up (1982) – Available now
- High School Transcripts (1983) – Available now
- Second Follow-up (1984) – Available now
- Third Follow-up (1986) – Available now
- Fourth Follow-up (1992) – Available now
- Postsecondary Transcripts (1993) – Available now
- Fifth follow-up (2014) – Available now
HS&B: High School and Beyond
NELS:88: National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988
ELS:2002: Education Longitudinal Study of 2002
HSLS:09; High School Longitudinal Study of 2009
F1: First follow-up data collection
F2: Second follow-up data collection
F3: Third follow-up data collection
F4: Fourth follow-up data collection
F5: Fifth follow-up data collection
HST: High School Transcript
PST: Post-secondary Transcript