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 Pub Number  Title  Date
NCES 2022126 2022 NAEP Reading Assessment: Highlighted Results at Grades 4 and 8 for the Nation, States, and Districts
This report presents selected results from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 2022 reading assessment. The report includes national, state, and district results on the performance of fourth- and eighth-grade students. Results are presented in terms of average scores and as percentages of students performing at or above the three NAEP achievement levels: NAEP Basic, NAEP Proficient, and NAEP Advanced. In addition to overall scores, results are reported by race/ethnicity, gender, type of school, and other demographic groups. The report also provides information about student performance on sample questions as well as data related to teaching and learning during and after the pandemic.
10/24/2022
NCES 2023010 NAEP Reading 2022 State and District Snapshot Reports
Each state/jurisdiction and district that participated in the NAEP 2022 reading assessment receives a one-page Snapshot report that presents key findings and trends in a condensed format. The reports in this series provide bulleted text describing overall student results, bar charts showing NAEP achievement levels for selected years in which the state or district participated, and tables displaying results by gender, race/ethnicity, and eligibility for free/reduced-price lunch. In addition, bulleted text describes the trends in average scale score gaps by gender, race/ethnicity, and eligibility for free/reduced-price lunch. Each state/jurisdiction Snapshot report includes a map comparing the 2022 average score to other states/jurisdictions; and each district Snapshot report includes a table comparing the 2022 average score to other participating districts.
10/24/2022
NCES 2022121 2022 Long-Term Trend Reading and Mathematics Age 9 Highlights Report

This report describes selected results from the age 9 2022 long-term trend (LTT) reading and mathematics assessments. The report focuses on the comparison of a nationally representative sample of age 9 students who took the assessments in the winter of the 2019-2020 school year with those who took the assessments in the winter of 2021-2022 school year. The report provides insight into the performance of age 9 students in reading and mathematics, as well as data from students and school administrators about the widespread disruptions in learning that occurred during the 2020−2021 and 2021−2022 school years. In addition, the report provides links to data tables comparing 2022 performance in LTT reading and mathematics across all administrations dating back to the early 1970s.

9/1/2022
NCEE 2022007 The Effects of an Academic Language Program on Student Reading Outcomes
Helping English learners and economically disadvantaged students read as well as their more advantaged peers is a struggle for many schools. This study tested a promising program to improve fourth- and fifth-grade students' ability to understand the academic language used in school and support their reading achievement. The supplemental program included reading, speaking, and writing activities for students and training for teachers. About 60 schools were randomly assigned to implement the program for one school year or to continue using their typical strategies. The study compared the average reading performance of the two groups to assess the program's effectiveness.
8/16/2022
WWC 2022007 Providing Reading Interventions for Students in Grades 4-9
The What Works Clearinghouse(TM) (WWC) developed this practice guide in partnership with a panel of experts on reading interventions. The panel distilled recent reading intervention research into four easily comprehensible and practical recommendations that educators can use to deliver reading intervention to meet the needs of students in grades 4-9. The four recommendations in this practice guide will be useful for special educators, general education teachers, reading specialists/coaches, administrators, and parents.
3/30/2022
NCES 2021077 2020 Long-Term Trend Reading and Mathematics Assessment Results at Age 9 and Age 13
This report presents the results of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) long-term trend assessments in reading and mathematics administered during the 2019–20 school year to 9- and 13-year-old students. Long-term trend assessments were first administered in the early 1970s; results are available for 13 reading assessments dating back to 1971 and 12 mathematics assessments dating back to 1973. This report provides trend results in terms of average scale scores, selected percentiles, and five performance levels. Item maps for each age group illustrate skills demonstrated by students when responding to assessment questions. Scale score results are included for students by selected background characteristics (e.g., race/ethnicity, gender, and grade attended). Overall, the 2020 average scores in reading and mathematics for 13-year-olds were higher than the earliest assessments but declined since 2012. Scores for the lowest-performing students (at the 10th percentile) decreased from 2012 at both ages and subjects.
10/14/2021
REL 2021116 Factors Associated with Grade 3 Reading Outcomes of Students in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Public School System
Few elementary students on the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI) are scoring at grade level or higher on the ACT Aspire reading assessment. To better understand factors associated with the reading proficiency of CNMI grade 3 students, stakeholders there asked the Regional Educational Laboratory Pacific to examine the demographic characteristics and education experiences of students who demonstrated reading proficiency by grade 3. The study focused on grade 3 students who were enrolled in CNMI public schools from 2014/15 to 2018/19. It found that female students, students who did not receive free or reduced-priced lunch, students who were older at the time of kindergarten entry, Filipino students, and students who did not change schools were more likely to demonstrate reading proficiency in grade 3 than other students. There was no difference in grade 3 reading proficiency between students who had enrolled in Head Start and students who had not.
9/21/2021
REL 2021113 Using Enhanced Coaching of Teachers to Improve Reading Achievement in Grades PreK–2 in Chicago Public Schools
Chicago Public Schools is working to improve early literacy outcomes through a multiyear professional development initiative for preK–2 teachers. The P–2 Balanced Literacy Initiative aims to improve literacy instruction by training teachers to implement effective early literacy instruction balancing systematic foundational skills instruction with reading and writing instruction involving rich, complex texts. The initiative began in 2016/17 and served 23 percent of all district elementary schools by 2018/19. The district designated 26 of the 115 elementary schools implementing the initiative in 2018/19 to receive enhanced supports, including intensive, site-based coaching, to support students’ independent reading. This study compared the reading achievement of students who attended schools that received the enhanced supports (priority schools) with the reading achievement of students who attended similar schools that received only the initiative’s standard supports (nonpriority schools). It also examined differences between priority and nonpriority schools in teachers’ and administrators’ participation in professional development sessions and looked at the successes and challenges of implementation. The study found that one year after implementation of the initiative, attending a priority school did not lead to higher end-of-year reading achievement than attending a nonpriority school after other factors were adjusted for. Teachers and administrators in priority schools were more likely than those in nonpriority schools to participate in the initiative’s core professional development sessions. Interviews with select district, network, and school leaders; instructional support coaches; and teachers suggest that several aspects of the initiative’s professional development were valuable, most notably the opportunities for teachers to deepen their understanding of the initiative’s professional development, receive feedback through observation and school-based coaching, and learn from one another. But instructional support coaches’ limited capacity, due to competing responsibilities, was a challenge. District leaders might consider increasing the number of coaches available and limiting their competing priorities so they can focus on the initiative.
9/15/2021
NCES 2021029 2012–2016 Program for International Student Assessment Young Adult Follow-up Study (PISA YAFS): How reading and mathematics performance at age 15 relate to literacy and numeracy skills and education, workforce, and life outcomes at age 19
This Research and Development report provides data on the literacy and numeracy performance of U.S. young adults at age 19, as well as examines the relationship between that performance and their earlier reading and mathematics proficiency in PISA 2012 at age 15. It also explores how other aspects of their lives at age 19—such as their engagement in postsecondary education, participation in the workforce, attitudes, and vocational interests—are related to their proficiency at age 15.
6/15/2021
NCES 2021036 Mapping State Proficiency Standards onto the NAEP Scales: Results From the 2019 NAEP Reading and Mathematics Assessments
The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) has periodically published reports using results from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) to compare the proficiency standards that states set for their students. Since standards vary across states, the results of the various state assessments cannot be used to directly compare students’ progress. However, by placing a state standard onto the NAEP scale, a common metric for all states, a NAEP equivalent score is produced, which can be compared across states. The last mapping study report released by NCES (NCES 2019-040) compared state proficiency standards for school year 2016-17. The current report highlights the results of mapping state proficiency standards onto the NAEP scales using state assessment results from the 2018–19 school year and the 2019 NAEP assessments for public schools.
6/1/2021
NCES 2021018 The National Indian Education Study 2019

The National Indian Education Study (NIES) utilizes the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) and contextual questions to describe the condition of education for fourth- and eighth-grade American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) students in the United States. NIES is conducted under the direction of the National Center for Education Statistics on behalf of the U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Indian Education.

This report provides:
  • an in-depth look at the findings from the student, teacher, and school administrator survey questions that were focused on AI/AN culture and language;
  • information about the achievement of AI/AN students at grades 4 and 8 on the NAEP reading and mathematics assessments—for the nation as well as for 15 states with relatively large proportions of AI/AN students;
  • an examination of contextual factors that are associated with higher- and lower-performing AI/AN students; and
  • an exploration of composite variables (i.e., variables built upon multiple discrete student survey questions) related to AI/AN cultural knowledge, interest in reading about cultures (both their own and others), engagement at school, and perceptions about effort in school.

Results are reported for three mutually exclusive categories of schools as well as for an overall category:

  • low density public schools (where less than 25 percent of all the students in the school were AI/AN);
  • high density public schools (where 25 percent or more of all the students in the school were AI/AN);
  • Bureau of Indian Education (BIE) schools; and
  • all AI/AN students (includes all AI/AN students sampled throughout the nation in public, private, BIE, and Department of Defense schools).

The survey results presented in this report are focused primarily on the responses of fourth- and eighth-grade AI/AN students to selected survey questions. Approximately 7,000 fourth-graders and 6,300 eighth-graders participated in the NIES 2019 student survey. Teachers and school administrators also completed surveys.

Average scores in NAEP reading and mathematics for AI/AN fourth- and eighth- graders from earlier NAEP assessments in 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011, and 2015 are compared to their average reading and mathematics scores in 2019.

The NIES survey questions, as well as the report itself, were created in close collaboration with the NIES Technical Review Panel (TRP). The NIES TRP is composed of AI/AN educational stakeholders from across the country.

5/18/2021
REL 2021086 A Third-Grade Teacher's Guide to Supporting Family Involvement in Foundational Reading Skills
This Third Grade Teacher's Guide provides information for third grade teachers on how to support families as they practice foundational reading skills at home. It serves as a companion to the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) practice guide, Foundational Skills to Support Reading for Understanding in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade. Both guides present four research-based recommendations and how-to steps: the WWC guide is for teaching children at school, and this guide is to help teachers support families in practicing foundational reading skills at home.

The information in this Third Grade Teacher's Guide is designed to assist teachers in supporting out-of-school literacy activities that are aligned to classroom instruction, informed by student need, grounded in evidence-based practices, and facilitated by ongoing parent-teacher communication. The Teacher's Guide provides a framework for literacy support activities presented during schools' family literacy nights and parent-teacher conferences. This Teacher's Guide includes:
  • Recommendation Reminders that provide a snapshot of each recommendation and how-to steps from the WWC guide.
  • Teacher Scaffolds that model the language teachers can use with families to describe a specific skill, why it is important in learning to read, and how to support that skill.
  • Family Activities that contain evidence-based literacy activities with easy-to-follow plans, and materials that teachers model and share with families.
  • Family Literacy Videos that show families engaging their child in activities related to the skills teachers modeled during family literacy nights or at parent-teacher conferences.
4/19/2021
WWC 2021009 Xtreme Reading Intervention Report
The Xtreme Reading curriculum is primarily designed to help students improve their vocabulary, decoding, fluency, and reading comprehension skills. The Xtreme Reading program includes teacher-led whole-group instruction, cooperative group work, paired practice, and independent practice.

Based on the research, the WWC found that Xtreme Reading has no discernible effects on comprehension or general literacy achievement. The WWC based its conclusion on its review of two studies of Xtreme Reading that met WWC group design standards. The two studies included 3,008 students, who were struggling readers based on their low performance on state standardized tests, in 39 high schools in 12 districts across 9 states.
4/8/2021
REL 2021060 Integrating Reading Foundations: A Tool for College Instructors of Pre‑service Teachers

The College Instructor’s Guide is designed to assist college instructors build pre-service teacher knowledge of evidence-based strategies to help kindergarten through grade 3 students acquire the language and literacy skills needed to succeed academically. This tool is intended to be used in conjunction with the Foundational Skills to Support Reading for Understanding in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade practice guide, produced by the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC), an investment of the Institute of Education Sciences at the U.S. Department of Education. College instructors may use the lessons in this tool to provide collaborative learning experiences which engage pre-service teachers in activities that will expand their knowledge base as they read, discuss, share, and apply the key ideas and strategies presented in the WWC Practice Guide.

Each lesson in this College Instructor's Guide includes the following:

  • A recommendation reminder that provides a snapshot of the WWC practice guide recommendation and how-to steps for pre-service teachers.
  • Guidance to support college instructors as they teach pre-service teachers about a specific skill, why it is important in learning to read, and how to support that skill in the classroom.
  • Videos that explain foundational reading skills and demonstrate the use of activities intended to improve foundational reading skills with students in grades K-3. Pre-service teachers are asked to complete a video reflection worksheet for each video.
  • Activities for pre-service teachers to complete with peers in the college setting that reinforce foundational skills taught to students in grades K-3.
  • Observation forms to be used in the practicum setting that include guiding questions related to each recommendation to help pre-service teacher’s compare newly learned strategies to observed practices.
2/24/2021
REL 2021058 Trends and Gaps in Reading Achievement across Kindergarten and Grade 1 in Two Illinois School Districts
To assess educational progress in the early grades and identify achievement gaps, the Midwest Early Childhood Education Research Alliance examined reading achievement data among students in kindergarten and grade 1 in two districts in Illinois. The study documents overall reading achievement in these and examines disparities in achievement among groups defined by race/ethnicity, eligibility for the national school lunch program, English learner status, participation in special education, and gender. District administrators, policymakers, and educators can use the findings to make decisions about allocating resources to students and schools. This study analyzed student records and assessment data from two cohorts of kindergarten and grade 1 students—one from Elgin Area Schools (District U–46) and one from Springfield Public Schools (District 186). District U–46 used the Fountas and Pinnell Benchmark Assessment System—a formative reading assessment administered by teachers—to assess the reading proficiency of kindergarten and grade 1 students. District 186 used the Measures of Academic Progress for Primary Grades assessment, an adaptive assessment that is appropriate for universal screening and growth measurement of students’ reading. The study team performed separate analyses for both districts given a discrete, categorical outcome variable for District U–46 and a continuous outcome variable for District 186. The study found that reading achievement increased across the kindergarten and grade 1 years for all students. However, there were differences in reading achievement across student demographic groups. In both districts, Asian and White students had higher achievement than Black and Hispanic students, and students not eligible for the national school lunch program and students not in special education had higher achievement than students with this eligibility and this status. In District U–46, non-English learner students had higher achievement levels than English learner students. In District 186, female students started kindergarten and ended grade 1 with slightly higher levels of reading achievement than male students. District administrators, policy makers, and educators can use these findings to make decisions about allocating resources—such as professional development, literacy coaches, or books—to schools that serve larger concentrations of Black or Hispanic students, students eligible for the national school lunch program, students in special education, or English learner students. Examining achievement patterns by student demographic group is an important first step in identifying whether districts or schools need to distribute resources or opportunities differently to achieve more equitable outcomes across student demographic groups. District administrators, policy makers, and educators can use the results to motivate conversations about the root causes of inequities and how to resolve them.
2/9/2021
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