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 Pub Number  Title  Date
REL 2019001 Teacher retention, mobility, and attrition in Colorado, Missouri, Nebraska, and South Dakota
This report describes rural and nonrural teacher movement within and out of public school systems in Colorado, Missouri, Nebraska, and South Dakota. All four states have high proportions of rural districts and schools. The authors used administrative data provided by state education agencies to examine the percentages of teachers who stayed in the same school, moved to a different school or district, or left a teaching position. Results suggest that the proportions of stayers, movers, and leavers in these states were similar to national statistics and varied substantially across districts within states.
3/11/2019
REL 2018283 Trends in teacher mobility in Texas and associations with teacher, student, and school characteristics
This study provides updated information regarding teacher mobility—defined as teachers moving schools or leaving the public-school system—for Texas public schools during the 2011/12 through 2015/16 school years. Descriptive information on mobility rates is presented at the regional and state levels for each school year. Mobility rates are disaggregated further into destination proportions to describe the proportion of teacher mobility due to within-district movement, between-district movement, and leaving Texas public schools. This study leverages data collected by the Texas Education Agency during the pilot of the Texas Teacher Evaluation and Support System (T-TESS) in 57 school districts in 2014/15. Analyses examine how components of the T-TESS observation rubric are related to school-level teacher mobility rates. During the 2011/12 school year, about 18.7 percent of Texas teachers moved schools within a district, moved between districts, or left the Texas Public School system. By 2015/16, this mobility rate had increased to 22.0 percent. Moving between districts was the primary driver of the increase in mobility rates. Results indicate significant links between mobility and teacher, student, and school demographic characteristics. Teachers with special education certifications left Texas public schools at nearly twice the rate of teachers with other teaching certifications. School-level mobility rates showed significant positive correlations with the proportion of special education, economically disadvantaged, low-performing, and minority students. School-level mobility rates were negatively correlated with the proportion of English learner students. Schools with higher overall observation ratings on the T-TESS rubric tended to have lower mobility rates. Findings from this study will provide state and district policymakers in Texas with updated information about trends and correlates of mobility in the teaching workforce, and offer a systematic baseline for monitoring and planning for future changes. Informed by these findings, policymakers can formulate a more strategic and targeted approach for recruiting and retaining teachers. For instance, instead of using generic approaches to enhance the overall supply of teachers or improve recruitment, more targeted efforts to attract and retain teachers in specific subject areas (for example, special education), in certain stages of their career (for example, novice teachers), and in certain geographic areas are likely to be more productive. Moreover, this analysis may enrich the existing knowledge base about schools’ teacher retention and mobility in relation to the quality of their teaching force, or may inform policy discussions about the importance of a stable teaching force for teaching effectiveness.
12/19/2017
NCES 2017355 Documentation for the First Through Fifth Waves of the 2007–08 Beginning Teacher Longitudinal Study
This report covers all phases of the Beginning Teacher Longitudinal Study (BTLS), from survey planning through data file availability. The BTLS follows a sample of public elementary and secondary school teachers who participated in the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), and whose first year of teaching was 2007 or 2008. The BTLS sample includes teachers who leave teaching in the years after the SASS data collection and those who continue to teach either in the same school as the last year or in a different school.
11/27/2017
REL 2018275 Indicators of successful teacher recruitment and retention in Oklahoma rural school districts
The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with successful recruitment and retention of teachers in Oklahoma rural school districts, in order to highlight potential strategies to address Oklahoma’s teaching shortage. The study was designed to identify teacher-level, district-level, and community characteristics in rural Oklahoma that predict which teachers are most likely to be successfully recruited (as defined in this study as having completed a probationary period of employment in a district for three years and obtained tenure status in their fourth year of teaching) and retained (as defined in this study as the duration of employment of tenured teachers in a given school district). For context, the study also explores patterns of teacher job mobility in Oklahoma in rural and nonrual schools. This correlational study covers a 10-year period, the 2005/06 to 2014/15 school years, and uses data from Oklahoma State Department of Education, Office of Educational Quality and Accountability, and community characteristics from data in federal noneducation sources. The study found that teachers who are male, those who have higher postsecondary degrees, and those who have more teaching experience are harder than others to recruit and retain in Oklahoma schools. Another key finding is that for teachers in rural schools, total compensation and increased responsibilities in job assignment (as measured by full-time equivalent and additional nonteaching assignments) are positively associated with successful recruitment and retention. The exploration of the patterns of teacher job mobility in Oklahoma showed that teachers at rural schools have a 70 percent chance of reaching their fourth year of teaching in the same district and, therefore, reaching tenure; this rate is slightly lower than the rates for teachers in nonrural areas. Also, rural school districts in Oklahoma had consistently lower rates of success in recruiting teachers than nonrural school districts from 2006/07 to 2011/12. In conclusion, the evidence provided by this study can be used to inform incentive schemes to help retain certain groups of teachers and increase retention rates overall. In addition, the results of this study could inform the design of more rigorous studies, such as impact evaluations, of such incentive schemes.
10/11/2017
REL 2017196 Stated Briefly: An examination of the movement of educators within Minnesota
The Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Midwest conducted a study on the mobility of public school teachers and principals (including assistant principals) within Minnesota and presents average one-year and five-year mobility rates between 2006/07 and 2010/11. The study used the staffing data for the 2006/07 through 2011/12 school years and data on school-level performance and demographics for the same school years. REL Midwest analyzed these data to identify mobility rates and mobility patterns over time. The study also examined whether different educator characteristics and the characteristics of the exited schools (that is, the schools educators moved from) were related to the odds that Minnesota educators continuing their employment would change schools rather than stay employed in the same school. The study found that an average of 9.5 percent of teachers changed schools between consecutive years, and 20.8 percent changed schools within a five-year span. Teachers’ years of experience, licensure area, schools’ academic performance, percentage of students in the schools who were economically disadvantaged, school setting, size, and region in the state were related to the one-year and five-year mobility rates for teachers. One- and five-year mobility rates for principals averaged 10.5 and 29.3 percent, respectively. Principal one- and five-year mobility rates were related to principals’ years of experience, percentage of students in the school who were academically proficient, and percentage of students who were economically disadvantaged.
11/15/2016
REL 2017195 Stated Briefly: An examination of the movement of educators within Wisconsin
The Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Midwest conducted a study on the mobility of public school teachers and principals (including assistant principals) within Wisconsin and presents average one-year and five-year mobility rates between 2006/07 and 2010/11. The study used the staffing data for the 2006/07 through 2011/12 school years and data on school-level performance and demographics for the same school years. REL Midwest analyzed these data to identify mobility rates and mobility patterns over time. The study also examined whether different educator characteristics and the characteristics of the exited schools (that is, the schools educators moved from) were related to the odds that Wisconsin educators continuing their employment would change schools rather than stay employed in the same school. The study found that an average of 8 percent of teachers changed schools between consecutive years, and 19.4 percent changed schools within a five-year span. Teachers’ years of experience, licensure area, schools’ academic performance, percentage of students in the schools who were economically disadvantaged, school setting, size, and region in the state were related to the one-year and five-year mobility rates for teachers. One- and five-year mobility rates for principals averaged 11.9 and 30 percent, respectively. Principal one- and five-year mobility rates were related to principals’ years of experience, percentage of students in the school who were academically proficient, and whether the school was located in an urban setting.
11/15/2016
REL 2017194 Stated Briefly: An examination of the movement of educators within Iowa
The Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Midwest conducted a study on the mobility of public school teachers and principals (including assistant principals) within Iowa and presents average one-year and five-year mobility rates between 2006/07 and 2010/11. The study used the staffing data for the 2006/07 through 2011/12 school years and data on school-level performance and demographics for the same school years. REL Midwest analyzed these data to identify mobility rates and mobility patterns over time. The study also examined whether different educator characteristics and the characteristics of the exited schools (that is, the schools educators moved from) were related to the odds that Iowa educators continuing their employment would change schools rather than stay employed in the same school. The study found that an average of 6.7 percent of teachers changed schools between consecutive years, and 18.9 percent changed schools within a five-year span. Teachers’ years of experience, teacher gender, licensure area, percentage of students in the schools who are economically disadvantaged, schools’ academic performance, and region in the state all predict the five-year mobility rates for teachers. One- and five-year mobility rates for principals averaged 9.2 and 27.5 percent, respectively. Principal one- and five-year mobility rates were related to principals’ years of experience, school size, and region within the state.
11/15/2016
REL 2017185 An examination of the movement of educators within and across three Midwest Region states
The Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Midwest conducted a study on the mobility of teachers and administrators in public schools within and between Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. This study was the first to examine educator mobility within and among these three states using the same methodology across the states. The study used the staffing data for the 2005/06 through 2012/13 school years and data on school-level performance and demographics for the same school years from the three states. REL Midwest analyzed these data to identify mobility rates and mobility patterns over time, both within and across states. The study also examined whether different educator characteristics and the characteristics of the exited schools (that is, the schools educators moved from) were related to the odds that educators continuing their employment would change schools rather than stay employed in the same school. The study found that on average 6.8 percent of educators in Iowa, 9.3 percent in Minnesota, and 8.2 percent in Wisconsin moved to another school within state annually between 2006/07 and 2010/11. Teacher mobility rates were found to vary by subject areas and across regions within states. Less than 0.1 percent of educators in these three states moved to another of the three participating states between 2005/06 and 2011/12. Teachers were more likely to be mobile if they had less teaching experience, were in urban schools, or taught in schools with lower academic performance, fewer students, or more economically disadvantaged students. The relationships between these factors and principal mobility were less consistent.
11/15/2016
NCES 2016876 Sources of Newly Hired Teachers in the United States: Results from the Schools and Staffing Survey, 1987–88 to 2011–12
This Statistical Analysis Report examines changes in the sources of newly hired teachers at public and private schools between 1987-88 and 2011-12. The study is based on data from four administrations of the Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), a sample survey of elementary and secondary schools in the United States.
10/12/2016
REL 2016121 How current teachers in the Republic of Palau performed on a practice teacher certification examination
The purpose of this study was to examine teachers' performance on the Praxis I Pre-Professional Skills Tests® (PPST) in reading, writing, and math, and the relationships between test performance and selected teacher demographic and professional characteristics, in order to further the development and implementation of Palau's Professional Personnel and Certification System. The multiple choice sections of the practice Praxis I PPST tests of reading, writing, and math were administered and analyzed using descriptive statistics, along with cross-tabulations of test performance by teacher characteristics. Overall, the study found that while scores across subject areas were relatively low, teachers in Palau scored higher in reading than in writing and math. The performance of Palau test takers differed depending upon the language spoken in the home, English proficiency, level of education, years of teaching, and grade levels taught. In addition, respondents with better command of English performed better on the assessment. Level of education attained was significantly associated with a higher percentage of correct responses, and teachers with less than seven years of teaching experience answered slightly more questions correctly in reading, writing, and math than teachers with more years of teaching experience. Finally, teachers at the upper elementary and high school levels performed better on the assessments than teachers at the lower elementary level. The results of this study provide the Palau Research Alliance and Ministry of Education with information that may help establish appropriate passing scores on the Praxis PPST I reading, writing, and math subtests; may be used to create a multiyear plan of sustained improvement in the teacher workforce; may alert Palau leadership to the difficulties inherent in using English-based tests to assess the performance of those who do not have a strong command of the English language; and may be used to guide preservice curricular requirements and indicate the supporting professional development needs of Palau teachers at various grade levels.
9/28/2016
REL 2016161 Retention, attrition, and mobility among teachers and administrators in West Virginia
Due to increasing evidence that high rates of teacher and administrator turnover adversely affect student academic outcomes, stakeholders in West Virginia were interested in learning more about retention, mobility, and attrition rates in their public school districts. The Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Appalachia partnered with the West Virginia School Leadership Research Alliance to conduct a descriptive study examining the average rates of retention, attrition, and mobility for teachers and administrators in West Virginia public school districts for the academic years 2008/09–2012/13. The findings describe the average rates in these three areas for teachers and administrators across all West Virginia public school districts, as well as how these rates varied by personnel and district characteristics. On average, about 90 percent of both teachers and administrators stayed in the same West Virginia public school district from one year to the next. Retention rates were lower for teachers and administrators with fewer than 4 or more than 15 years of experience, for those with doctoral degrees, and for those earning the highest salaries. Average rates of retention, mobility, and attrition varied by school district, but rates for administrators varied more than for teachers. Both teacher and administrator attrition rates were higher in districts with greater percentages of students who were eligible for free or reduced-price lunch. Administrator attrition rates were higher in rural and town districts, in districts with enrollments between approximately 2,000–4,000 students, in districts with lower percentages of racial/ethnic minority students, and in districts serving fewer limited English proficient students. Average mobility rates were less than 3 percent for teachers and less than 6 percent for administrators, suggesting that teachers and administrators are leaving the system rather than moving to different West Virginia school districts. Attrition rates were highest for beginning teachers—those who were initially employed in the West Virginia public school system during one of the academic years examined (2008/09–2012/13). About a fifth of beginning teachers left after their first year of teaching, and nearly a third had left by the end of their fourth year. These findings contribute to the sparse literature on teacher and administrator retention, attrition, and mobility in West Virginia, indicating that the workforce is largely stable. This study also provides information that can be used to inform state and district policy initiatives that aim to improve teacher and administrator retention in school districts serving specific student populations, such as those with the highest proportions of students eligible for free or reduced-price lunch. At the state level, the information could be used to inform the development of policies aimed at improving retention of beginning teachers.
8/23/2016
REL 2016116 Teacher retention, mobility, and attrition in Kentucky public schools from 2008 to 2012
The purpose of this descriptive study was to determine the rates of retention, mobility, and attrition for classroom teachers in Kentucky public schools, as well as how those rates might vary by various teacher and school characteristics. The study looks at retention, defined as teachers returning to their same classroom ("stayers"); mobility, when teachers change schools within the school system ("movers"); and attrition, when teachers leave the system ("leavers") from one year to the next. The study used data on teachers collected by the Kentucky Center for Education & Workforce Statistics on every teacher employed in PK-12 public schools in academic years 2008/09, 2009/10, 2010/11, and 2011/12. Data on schools were obtained from the National Center for Education Statistics Common Core of Data. The study found that the Kentucky teacher workforce was largely stable across the study period (2008-2012). Most teachers (85.6 percent, on average) stayed in the same school from one year to the next, 6.0 percent moved to a different school, and 8.4 percent left the public school system. The study revealed some variation in rates based on select teacher and school characteristics. In particular, teachers with the fewest years of experience, teachers in urban schools, and teachers in schools where more students are eligible for free or reduced price lunch were retained at the lowest rates.
1/5/2016
NCES 2015196 Career Paths of Beginning Public School Teachers Results From the First Through Fifth Waves of the 2007–08 Beginning Teacher Longitudinal Study
This report presents 5-year longitudinal data on attrition and mobility for public school teachers (e.g., percentages teaching all years, teaching in the same school, returning or expected to return to teaching), by selected teacher characteristics using data from the first through fifth Waves of the 2007–08 Beginning Teacher Longitudinal Study.
10/1/2015
NCEE 20154015 New Findings on the Retention of Novice Teachers From Teaching Residency Programs
This brief is based on a study of residency programs that received funding from the U.S. Department of Education's Teacher Quality Partnership program. Residency programs are a model of teacher preparation in which prospective teachers complete graduate-level coursework alongside a year-long fieldwork experience in the district in which the prospective teacher will be hired.

The brief examines two cohorts of teachers trained through residency programs (TRPs)—those who were in their first year of teaching and those who were in their second year of teaching as of spring 2012. It looks at the rates at which the TRP teachers were retained in the same district and the same school as of fall 2013, thereby tracking two successive cohorts of teachers into their third or fourth year as a teacher of record. The brief updates earlier study findings (Silva et al. 2014) which examined retention as of fall 2012. For context, like the earlier report, the brief also includes retention findings based on a representative sample of teachers with similar experience and teaching in the same districts as the residency teachers, but who were trained through other (non-TRP) programs.

8/19/2015
NCES 2015337 Public School Teacher Attrition and Mobility in the First Five Years: Results From the First Through Fifth Waves of the 2007–08 Beginning Teacher Longitudinal Study
This First Look report provides selected findings from all five waves of the Beginning Teacher Longitudinal Study (BTLS) along with data tables and methodological information. The BTLS follows a sample of public elementary and secondary school teachers who participated in the 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), and whose first year of teaching was 2007 or 2008. The BTLS sample includes teachers who leave teaching in the years after the SASS data collection and those who continue to teach either in the same school as the last year or in a different school. The purpose of the Beginning Teacher Longitudinal Study is to provide a better understanding of the impact that different life events have on teachers careers (such as getting married, moving to a new location, or starting a family). It will also provide some insight on how school and/or district characteristics and policies affect teacher satisfaction, and how teachers respond to transitions in their lives and careers (such as moving to a different school, changing the grade levels or subject taught, becoming a mentor, transitioning into a K-12 administration position, or exiting the teaching field). The study will contribute to policymakers' understanding of teachers and of teachers' careers as they enter, leave, or re-enter the teaching workforce and make important career and life decisions.
4/30/2015
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