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|REL 2021108||Supports Associated with Teacher Retention in Michigan
Statewide teacher shortages are hindering Michigan’s efforts to ensure that all students have equitable access to qualified teachers. Implementing teacher supports—which may be policies, practices, or programs—to increase teacher retention offers a way to alleviate shortages. This study identified supports implemented by local education agencies (traditional school districts and charter schools) that are associated with teacher retention. The study examined local teacher retention rates from 2013/14 to 2018/19 and teachers' responses to a survey about teacher supports in their local agencies and their perceptions of those supports.
Average annual teacher retention rates among Michigan’s local education agencies ranged from 33 percent to 100 percent in the six-year period. The likelihood that teachers would remain teaching in their local education agency was higher in local education agencies that served lower percentages of students who were economically disadvantaged, higher percentages of students who were White, and higher percentages of students proficient in English language arts. And the likelihood was higher in agencies that had regular supportive communication between new teachers and school leaders, implemented mentoring programs, provided new teachers with an orientation to their school, allowed teachers to set goals in their evaluations, and provided teachers with sufficient instructional resources. The study also found that supports associated with teacher retention varied by the type of local education agency and the percentage of students who were economically disadvantaged. Findings from this study can help education agencies in Michigan prioritize which of 30 teacher supports examined merit more rigorous investigation.
|REL 2021100||Variation in Mentoring Practices and Retention across New Teacher Demographic Characteristics under a Large Urban District's New Teacher Mentoring Program
A large urban school district wanted to understand how its first-year teacher mentoring program might better support the district goals of increasing retention and maintaining a diverse workforce. This study investigated new teachers' participation in that program; how participation varied across teacher characteristics, especially how participation varied by the racial/ethnic makeup of new teacher–mentor pairs; and how participation in various aspects of the program was related to new teacher retention after the first year. The study found that over 40 percent of new teachers spent at least 10 hours a month meeting with their mentor but that more than 25 percent spent less than half that much time in mentoring meetings. There were also large differences by race/ethnicity in the proportions of new teachers who reported spending time on specific topics: White new teachers were almost twice as likely as Black new teachers to report spending substantial time on classroom management. New teacher retention was related to the amount of time new teachers spent meeting with their mentor, to whether new teachers reported spending substantial time with their mentor addressing classroom management, and to the racial/ethnic alignment of new teacher–mentor pairs.
|REL 2021113||Using Enhanced Coaching of Teachers to Improve Reading Achievement in Grades PreK–2 in Chicago Public Schools
Chicago Public Schools is working to improve early literacy outcomes through a multiyear professional development initiative for preK–2 teachers. The P–2 Balanced Literacy Initiative aims to improve literacy instruction by training teachers to implement effective early literacy instruction balancing systematic foundational skills instruction with reading and writing instruction involving rich, complex texts. The initiative began in 2016/17 and served 23 percent of all district elementary schools by 2018/19. The district designated 26 of the 115 elementary schools implementing the initiative in 2018/19 to receive enhanced supports, including intensive, site-based coaching, to support students’ independent reading. This study compared the reading achievement of students who attended schools that received the enhanced supports (priority schools) with the reading achievement of students who attended similar schools that received only the initiative’s standard supports (nonpriority schools). It also examined differences between priority and nonpriority schools in teachers’ and administrators’ participation in professional development sessions and looked at the successes and challenges of implementation. The study found that one year after implementation of the initiative, attending a priority school did not lead to higher end-of-year reading achievement than attending a nonpriority school after other factors were adjusted for. Teachers and administrators in priority schools were more likely than those in nonpriority schools to participate in the initiative’s core professional development sessions. Interviews with select district, network, and school leaders; instructional support coaches; and teachers suggest that several aspects of the initiative’s professional development were valuable, most notably the opportunities for teachers to deepen their understanding of the initiative’s professional development, receive feedback through observation and school-based coaching, and learn from one another. But instructional support coaches’ limited capacity, due to competing responsibilities, was a challenge. District leaders might consider increasing the number of coaches available and limiting their competing priorities so they can focus on the initiative.
|NCES 2021341||2008/18 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:08/18) Restricted-Use Data File (RUF)
This B&B:08/18 restricted-use dataset is the third and final data release for this study of a national sample of 2007–08 bachelor’s degree recipients who were surveyed 4 times over 10 years, in 2008, 2009, 2012, and 2018.
The Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B) examines students' education and work experiences after they complete a bachelor’s degree, with a special emphasis on the experiences of new elementary and secondary teachers.
|NCES 2021070||U.S. Technical Report and User Guide for the 2018 Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS)
The TALIS 2018 U.S. Technical Report and User Guide provides an overview of the design and implementation of TALIS 2018. This information is meant to supplement that presented in OECD’s TALIS 2018 Technical Report and TALIS 2018 User Guide publications by describing those aspects of TALIS 2018 that are unique to the United States including information on merging the U.S. public- and restricted-use teacher and school data files with the U.S. teacher and school data files in the international database.
|NCES 2021068||TALIS 2018 U.S. public-use teacher and school data files
The Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) is a survey about teachers, teaching, and learning environments. Sponsored by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), TALIS is composed of two questionnaires—one for teachers and one for their principals, and focuses on teachers and principals at the lower secondary school level (grades 7, 8, and 9 in the United States). The TALIS 2018 U.S. public-use teacher and school data files include U.S. specific variables that are not part of the U.S. teacher or school data files in the OECD’s TALIS 2018 international database. They are add-on files that do not contain weight variables or replicate weights, and therefore must be merged with the U.S. data files in the international database before any analysis can be conducted. The U.S. data files in the international database can be downloaded from the OECD at http://www.oecd.org/education/talis/talis-2018-data.htm. The TALIS 2018 U.S. public-use data files and documentation include following: teacher and school data in SPSS, SAS, and ASCII text format; SPSS and SAS control files for reading the ASCII data to produce SPSS and SAS data files; codebooks; illustrative merging code; a Read Me file; and a Quick Guide. Users of this data should consult the TALIS 2018 U.S. Technical Report and User Guide available for viewing and downloading at https://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2021070
|NCES 2021069||TALIS 2018 U.S. restricted-use teacher and school data files
The Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) is a survey about teachers, teaching, and learning environments. Sponsored by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), TALIS is composed of two questionnaires—one for teachers and one for their principals, and focuses on teachers and principals at the lower secondary school level (grades 7, 8, and 9 in the United States). The TALIS 2018 U.S. restricted-use teacher and school data files include U.S. specific variables that are not part of the TALIS 2018 U.S. public-use data files or the U.S. data files in the OECD’s TALIS 2018 international database. They include NCES school IDs that facilitate merging with the Common Core of Data (CCD) for public schools and the Private School Universe Survey (PSS) for private schools. They are add-on files that do not contain weight variables or replicate weights, and therefore need to be merged with the U.S. teacher and school data files in the international database before any analysis can be conducted. The U.S. data files in the international database can be downloaded from the OECD at http://www.oecd.org/education/talis/talis-2018-data.htm. The TALIS 2018 U.S. restricted-use data files and documentation include following: teacher and school data in SAS, SPSS, and ASCII text format; SPSS and SAS control files for reading the ASCII data to produce SPSS and SAS data files; codebooks; illustrative merging code; a Read Me file; and a Quick Guide. Users of this data should consult the TALIS 2018 U.S. Technical Report and User Guide available for viewing and downloading at https://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2021070
|NCES 2021046||Teacher Training to Meet Diverse Student Needs Before Entering the Classroom: Teacher Preparation in 2017-18
This Data Point looks at preservice coursework taken by public and private school teachers to meet the needs of diverse student populations before the coronavirus pandemic. Preservice coursework, part of teacher preparation, is completed by U.S. private and public school teachers before their first year teaching. This information was reported by public and private school teachers on the 2017–18 National Teacher and Principal Survey.
|REL 2021104||Using High School and College Data to Predict Teacher Candidates' Performance on the Praxis at Unibetsedĺt Guĺhan (University of Guam)
Policymakers and educators on Guĺhan (Guam) are concerned about the persistent shortage of qualified K-12 teachers. Staff at the Unibetsedĺt Guĺhan (University of Guam, UOG) School of Education, the only local university that offers a teacher training and certification program, believe that more students are interested in becoming teachers but that the program's admissions requirements--in particular, the Praxis® Core test, which consists of reading, writing, and math subtests--might be a barrier. Little is known about the predictors for passing the Praxis Core test. This makes it difficult to develop and implement targeted interventions to help students pass the test and prepare for the program.
This study examined which student demographic and academic preparation characteristics predict passing the Praxis Core test and each of its subtests. The study examined two groups of students who attempted at least one subtest within three years of enrolling at UOG: students who graduated from a Guĺhan public high school (group 1) and all students, regardless of the high school from which they graduated (group 2). Just over half the students in each group passed the Praxis Core test (passed all three subtests) within three years of enrolling at UOG. The pass rate was lower on the math subtest than on the reading and writing subtests. For group 1, students who earned credit for at least one semester of Advanced Placement or honors math courses in high school had a higher pass rate on the Praxis Core test than students who did not earn any credit for those courses, students who earned a grade of 92 percent or higher in grade 10 English had a higher pass rate on the reading subtest than students who earned a lower grade, and students who earned a grade higher than 103 percent in grade 10 English had a higher pass rate on the writing subtest than students who earned a lower grade. For group 2, students who did not receive a Pell Grant (a proxy for socioeconomic status) had a higher Praxis Core test pass rate than students who did receive a Pell Grant, students who earned a grade of B or higher in first-year college English had a higher Praxis Core test pass rate than students who earned a lower grade, and male students had a higher pass rate on the reading and math subtests than female students.
The study findings have several implications for intervention plans at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. Although students must pass all three Praxis subtests to be admitted to the teacher preparation program at the School of Education, examining student performance on each subtest can help stakeholders understand the content areas in which students might need more support. In the long term preparing more prospective teachers for the Praxis Core test might increase program enrollment, which in turn might increase the on-island hiring pool.
|REL 2021095||Examination of the Validity and Reliability of the Kansas Clinical Assessment Tool
Although national assessments for evaluating teacher candidates are available, some state education agencies and education preparation programs have developed their own assessments. These locally developed assessments are based on observations of teaching and other artifacts such as lesson plans and student assignments. However, local assessment developers often lack information about the validity and reliability of data collected with their assessments. The Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP) has provided guidance for demonstrating the validity and reliability of locally developed teacher candidate assessments, yet few educator preparation programs have the capacity to generate this evidence.
The Regional Educational Laboratory Central partnered with educator preparation programs in Kansas to examine the validity and reliability of the Kansas Clinical Assessment Tool (K-CAT), a newly developed tool for assessing the performance of teacher candidates. The study was designed to align with CAEP guidance. The study found that cooperating teachers reported that the K-CAT accurately represented existing teaching performance standards (face validity). Two skilled raters found that the content of the K-CAT was mostly aligned to existing teaching performance standards (content validity). In addition, K-CAT scores for the same teacher candidate, provided by cooperating teachers and supervising faculty, were positively related (convergent validity). K-CAT indicator scores showed internal consistency, or correlations among related indicators, for standards and for the tool overall (reliability). K-CAT scores showed small relationships with teacher candidate scores on other measures of teaching performance (criterion-related validity).
|NCES 2021054||Teacher Requirements to Help Students Outside Regular School Hours in 2017–18
This Data Point examines whether teachers were required to help students with their academic or social and emotional needs outside regular school hours in public and private schools in the United States in school year 2017-18, by selected school classification.
|REL 2021094||Pathways to Teaching: Teacher Diversity, Testing, Certification, and Employment in Washington State
The number and percentage of students of color are growing in Washington state, yet the teacher workforce remains largely White (non-Hispanic). This means that few students of color have teachers who share their race or ethnicity, which could have consequences for student achievement and wellbeing. To better understand the state’s shortage of teachers of color, this study investigated six steps in the teacher preparation and career pathway at which teacher candidates and teachers are likely to drop out or leave the profession: three teacher preparation tests, certification, employment, and retention. Among all teacher candidates who took at least one of these steps during 2010-19, Hispanic candidates and non-Hispanic candidates of color were less likely than White candidates to complete each step, took longer to complete each step, and were less likely to become a certificated educator in a Washington K-12 public school. The descriptive findings suggest that education policymakers consider revising policies and programs to increase the number of teachers of color. The state has already made changes, such as revising testing requirements for teacher candidates.
|NCES 2021144||Condition of Education 2021
The Condition of Education 2021 is a congressionally mandated annual report summarizing the latest data from NCES and other sources on education in the United States. This report is designed to help policymakers and the public monitor educational progress.
|WWC 2021010||Science Teachers Learning through Lesson Analysis (STeLLA®)
This What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) intervention report summarizes the research on Science Teachers Learning through Lesson Analysis (STeLLA®). STeLLA® is a professional development program, developed by BSCS Science Learning, that aims to improve students' science achievement by improving elementary teachers' science content knowledge and instruction. Based on the research, the WWC found that implementing STeLLA® has potentially positive effects on science achievement for students in grades 4 and 5.
|REL 2021079||Outcomes for Early Career Teachers Prepared through a Pilot Residency Program in Louisiana
Louisiana's Believe and Prepare pilot program, supported by grants from the Louisiana Department of Education, aimed to prepare teacher candidates or in-service teachers through a residency with a mentor and a competency-based curriculum. To improve teacher preparation and teacher residencies, state and teacher education leaders in Louisiana sought to better understand the early career outcomes for participants in the pilot program. This study analyzed data for the three cohorts that participated in the program between 2014/15 and 2016/17. A majority (76 percent) of pilot participants were enrolled in a university-based teacher preparation program. The study examined certification, employment, and retention outcomes for a subset of pilot participants who were teacher candidates or early career teachers (together referred to as early career Believe and Prepare pilot participants). About 30 percent of early career Believe and Prepare pilot participants who attained a Level 1 professional certificate in 2015/16–2017/18 were certified in a high-need subject, as defined by the Louisiana Department of Education (middle grades math and science, secondary math and science, or special education), and 28 percent of participants who entered teaching in 2015/16–2018/19 taught in a high-need subject in their first year of teaching. Early career pilot program participants who completed a residency in a primary school were more likely than those who completed a residency in a nonprimary school to attain a Level 1 professional certificate. Participants who completed a residency in a charter school were less likely than those who completed a residency in a noncharter school to attain a Level 1 professional certificate. (Louisiana does not require Level 1 certifications for charter schools.) Of early career Believe and Prepare teachers who entered teaching in 2015/16–2017/18, 89 percent were retained in the state for a second year, 76 percent were retained in the same district, and 71 percent were retained in the same school. Among these teachers the within-state retention rate was lowest for teachers in high-need subjects, and the within-school retention rate was lowest for secondary and middle grades math and science teachers.