Search Results: (1-15 of 18 records)
|What is the evidence base to support reading interventions for improving student outcomes in grades 1-3?
The goal of this report is to provide administrators, school psychologists, counselors, special educators, and reading specialists with a summary and analysis of the evidence that supports the use of reading interventions in grades 1-3. The review was limited to studies of Tier 2 interventions, those designed to provide preventive services to students at risk for reading difficulties. The initial literature search identified 1,813 articles and reports. After screening them for relevance and conducting a detailed What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) analysis of the rigor of the study designs, the review team determined that only 23 effectiveness studies met WWC evidence standards (Version 3.0). Of those, 22 resulted in either significant, positive, or potentially positive impacts in at least one area of reading. None produced negative outcomes. Twelve of the 13 grade 1 interventions and all seven interventions for grades 2 and 3 produced positive or potentially positive effects. Effects were strongest and most consistent in the area of word and pseudoword reading. Several also produced effects in reading comprehension and passage reading fluency. Reading vocabulary was rarely assessed. Both individually administered and small-group interventions resulted in positive or potentially positive outcomes, although especially in grade 1, more of the interventions were one-on-one. In all cases, the interventionist received some training prior to implementing the intervention. However, these studies differed from common school practice in that implementation was carefully monitored in virtually all instances and coaching or feedback was provided. It is unclear how generalizable these findings are when the typical amount of ongoing support for interventionists is far more limited in practice.
|Summary of research on online and blended learning programs that offer differentiated learning options
This report presents a summary of empirical studies of K-12 online and blended instructional approaches that offer differentiated learning options. In these approaches, instruction is provided in whole or in part online. This report includes studies that examine student achievement outcomes and summarizes the methodology, measures, and findings used in the studies of these instructional approaches. Of the 162 studies that were reviewed, 17 met all inclusion criteria and are summarized in this report. The majority of the studies examined blended instructional approaches, while all approaches provided some means to differentiate the content, difficulty level, and/or pacing of the online content. Among the blended instructional approaches, 45 percent were designed to support differentiation of the in-class component of instruction. The majority of studies examining these approaches compared student performance on common standardized achievement measures between students receiving the instructional approach and those in comparison classrooms or schools. Among the most rigorous studies, statistically significant positive effects were found for four blended instructional approaches.
|Formative assessment and elementary school student academic achievement: A review of the evidence
Formative assessment is a process that engages teachers and students in gathering and using information about what students are learning. This comprehensive and systematic review identifies 22 rigorous studies of the effectiveness of formative assessment interventions among elementary students. Results of the study indicate that, overall, formative assessment has a positive effect on student achievement. On average, across the studies, students who participated in formative assessment performed better on measures of academic achievement than those who did not. Formative assessment interventions in mathematics had larger effects, on average, than formative assessment interventions in reading or writing. Both student-directed formative assessment and formative assessment directed by other agents, such as a teacher or a computer program, appear to be effective for mathematics. Other-directed formative assessment interventions appear to be more effective for reading than student-directed formative assessment interventions.
|A review of the literature on social and emotional learning for students ages 3-8: Outcomes for different student populations and settings (part 4 of 4)
This is the fourth in a series of four related reports about what's known about social and emotional learning (SEL) programs for children ages 3-8. The purpose of the report series is to summarize the benefits of SEL in early childhood, and identify the characteristics of SEL interventions that are effective in school contexts. Responding to a need expressed by the Early Childhood Education Research Alliance, the research team conducted a systematic review and synthesis of recent research reviews and meta-analyses on the topic of SEL. This report presents outcomes for the general student population and student subgroups, including students from low-income families, racial/ethnic minority students, male and female students, English learner students, and students from urban and rural locales. Results suggest that SEL programs positively affect social and academic outcomes for the general student population, such as increased academic motivation, self-efficacy, conflict resolution skills, emotion recognition, empathy, and bonding to school; reduced antisocial behaviors and behavior problems; and higher grades and test scores. The outcomes of SEL for student subgroups are mixed. While some successful strategies for implementing SEL with diverse populations have been identified, more research is needed.
|A review of the literature on social and emotional learning for students ages 3-8: Teacher and classroom strategies that contribute to social and emotional learning (part 3 of 4)
This is the third in a series of four related reports about what's known about social and emotional learning (SEL) programs for children ages 3-8. The purpose of the report series is to summarize the benefits of SEL in early childhood, and identify the characteristics of SEL interventions that are effective in school contexts. Responding to a need expressed by the Early Childhood Education Research Alliance, the research team conducted a systematic review and synthesis of recent research reviews and meta-analyses on the topic of SEL. The sources reviewed for this report included a large body of evidence regarding individual teacher and classroom practices that promote SEL. This report identifies three classroom factors (other than using SEL curriculum) that impact social and emotional learning: classroom climate (physical space and materials, classroom management, emotional climate), instructional strategies (modeling, reacting, teaching), and teacher social and emotional competence. Teachers and administrators can use the strategies presented in this report either alongside, or in the absence of, a formal SEL program.
|A review of the literature on social and emotional learning for students ages 3-8: Implementation strategies and state and district support policies (part 2 of 4)
This is the second in a series of four related reports about what's known about social and emotional learning (SEL) programs for children ages 3-8. The purpose of the report series is to summarize the benefits of SEL in early childhood, and identify the characteristics of SEL interventions that are effective in school contexts. Responding to a need expressed by the Early Childhood Education Research Alliance, the research team conducted a systematic review and synthesis of recent research reviews and meta-analyses on the topic of SEL. This report is a review of the literature on the implementation strategies that support SEL programming, including a cycle of continuous improvement. It also presents state and district policy supports for SEL programming, such as engaging stakeholders, assessing resources and needs, adopting evidence-based SEL programs, integrating SEL into teacher and administrator evaluation systems, and developing comprehensive, freestanding SEL learning standards.
|A review of the literature on social and emotional learning for students ages 3-8: Characteristics of effective social and emotional learning programs (part 1 of 4)
This is the first in a series of four related reports about what's known about social and emotional learning (SEL) programs for children ages 3-8. The purpose of the report series is to summarize the benefits of SEL in early childhood, and identify the characteristics of SEL interventions that are effective in school contexts. Responding to a need expressed by the Early Childhood Education Research Alliance, the research team conducted a systematic review and synthesis of recent research reviews and meta-analyses on the topic of SEL. This report is a review of the literature on stand-alone, evidence-based SEL programs that are associated with positive student behaviors and/or academic performance. The literature reviewed for this report also includes programs that target executive functioning, with an understanding that many SEL approaches represent a hybrid of the two. To assist educators and policymakers, this report presents information on selecting an evidenced-based SEL program and provides recommendations from experts.
|Summary of 20 years of research on the effectiveness of adolescent literacy programs and practices
This literature review searched the peer-reviewed studies of reading comprehension instructional practices conducted and published between 1994 and 2014 and summarizes the instructional practices that have demonstrated positive or potentially positive effects in scientifically rigorous studies employing experimental designs. Each study was rated by the review team utilizing the What Works Clearinghouse standards. The review of the literature resulted in the identification of 7,144 studies. Of these studies, only 111 met eligibility for review. Thirty-three of these studies were determined by the study team to have met What Works Clearinghouse standards. The 33 studies represented 29 different interventions or classroom practices. Twelve of these studies demonstrated positive or potentially positive effects. These 12 studies are described and the commonalities among the studies are summarized.
|Summary of research on the association between state interventions in chronically low-performing schools and student achievement
This report presents a summary of research on the associations between state interventions in chronically low-performing schools and student achievement. The majority of the research focused on one type of state intervention: working with a turnaround partner. In this type of intervention, states assign an individual or team to work with a school to identify strengths and weaknesses, develop a school improvement plan, and provide technical assistance as the school implements the plan. In some cases, additional funding is also provided to support implementation of the school improvement efforts. Most of the studies were descriptive, which limits conclusions about the effectiveness of the interventions. Results of studies of turnaround partner interventions were mixed, and suggested that student achievement was more likely to improve when particular factors were in place in schools such as strong leadership, use of data to guide instruction, and a positive school culture characterized by trust and increased expectations for students. Although researchers sought to include research on a variety of state intervention types, few studies were identified that examined other types of interventions such as school closure, charter conversion, and school redesign.
|A Review of the Literature to Identify Leading Indicators Related to Hispanic STEM Postsecondary Educational Outcomes
The purpose of this study was to review recent peer-reviewed studies in order to identify malleable factors measured in K–12 settings that are related to students' postsecondary STEM success, particularly for Hispanic students. Postsecondary STEM success was defined as enrollment in, persistence in, and completion of postsecondary STEM majors or degrees. Twenty-three relevant studies were identified, yet only 4 examined K–12 factors predictive of postsecondary STEM success specifically for Hispanic students. The review found that the number of high school mathematics and science courses taken, and the level of those courses is a consistent predictor of postsecondary STEM outcomes for all student subgroups. However, the literature indicates that minority students, including Hispanics, were less likely to take the highest-level mathematics and science courses. Students' interest and confidence in STEM at the K–12 levels was also predictive of postsecondary STEM success. Yet, despite lower levels of postsecondary STEM success, some studies indicate racial/ethnic minority and White students had similar levels of interest and confidence in STEM. The reviewed research suggests that reducing disparities in mathematics and science preparation between Hispanic and White students and increasing the rates at which Hispanic students take high-level mathematics and science classes has promise for informing interventions designed to improve STEM outcomes.
|A Systematic Review of the Relationships Between Principal Characteristics and Student Achievement
This systematic review of the relationships between principal characteristics and student achievement was created for educators, administrators, policy-makers, and other individuals interested in a comprehensive catalogue of research on relations between principal characteristics and student achievement. It synthesizes what is known about associations between principal characteristics and student achievement; specifically it summarizes the studies, highlights the effects found by the studies, and describes the steps of the systematic review process used. Of the 52 studies included in the comprehensive review, only one used an experimental design, and a positive effect was found. An additional 38 quantitative and two mixed method studies provided evidence that some principal characteristics are positively correlated with student achievement. However, causal relationships could not be established. The remaining eleven qualitative studies mirrored the quantitative findings.
|Identifying and Supporting English Learner Students with Learning Disabilities: Key Issues in the Literature and State Practice
While the literature on learning disabilities and on second-language acquisition is relatively extensive within the field of education, less is known about the specific characteristics and representation of English learner students with learning disabilities. Because there are no definitive resources and processes for identifying and determining best placement for English learner students with learning disabilities, schools, districts, and states struggle with this issue. As a result, English learner students who may or may not have learning disabilities are both over- and underrepresented in special education. This report aims to inform policymakers interested in developing procedures, including the use of guidelines and protocols, for identifying, assessing, and placing English learner students who may or may not have learning disabilities. The report describes 1) the key issues discussed in the research literature and 2) current state procedures for the 20 states with the largest English learner populations.
|Review of international research on factors underlying teacher absenteeism
Throughout the U.S.-affiliated Pacific Region, teacher absenteeism has posed a long-standing challenge. This report draws on research literature from international contexts and case studies to identify the underlying factors that may relate to teacher absenteeism. Resources included in this report were selected with a focus on non-U.S. Pacific entities and emerging economy contexts that might be most relevant to the U.S.-affiliated Pacific Islands. Different search parameters were used to determine the scope of U.S./international literature to include in the review. The report found five main themes to consider in relation to teacher absenteeism: pay structure (for example, direct or indirect working relationship with the school), management (for example, school governance), working conditions (for example, school culture or single- vs. multi-grade classroom structure), community conditions (for example, teachers' proximity to the school), and social and cultural responsibilities (for example, illness, funeral attendance, and care of family members). Predictors of absenteeism vary across place and context. Given the diversity of Pacific Region communities, stakeholders should examine the extent to which the context and results of the research in this review correspond to the social, structural, cultural, and environmental characteristics of their own contexts.
|Review of Research on Student Nonenrollment and Chronic Absenteeism: A Report for the Pacific Region
In some areas of the Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Pacific Region, between one-fourth and a half of secondary school–age students are not enrolled in school. Not being enrolled in school or being chronically absent can have lasting effects on students’ economic and social development. This REL Pacific report summarizes research on nonenrollment and chronic absenteeism from the United States and emergent nations that share characteristics with Pacific island nations. Four types of factors influence student nonenrollment and absenteeism: student-specific, family-specific, school-specific, and community-specific. Many of these potential factors are interconnected, and the effects of these factors may vary by region. Therefore, educators, policymakers, and family and community members in the Pacific Region may need to gather additional data in order to explore these factors in their own communities. Stakeholders can also use this review to begin to identify the root causes for why students are not in school in order to develop and implement targeted strategies to support student enrollment and attendance.
|The Effects of Increased Learning Time on Student Academic and Nonacademic Outcomes: Findings from a Meta-Analytic Review
REL Appalachia conducted a systematic review of the research evidence on the effects of increased learning time. After screening more than 7,000 studies, REL Appalachia identified 30 that met the most rigorous standards for research. A review of those 30 studies found that increased learning time does not always produce positive results. However, some forms of instruction tailored to the needs of specific types of students were found to improve their circumstances. Specific findings include:
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