Search Results: (16-30 of 399 records)
|REL 2017195||Stated Briefly: An examination of the movement of educators within Wisconsin
The Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Midwest conducted a study on the mobility of public school teachers and principals (including assistant principals) within Wisconsin and presents average one-year and five-year mobility rates between 2006/07 and 2010/11. The study used the staffing data for the 2006/07 through 2011/12 school years and data on school-level performance and demographics for the same school years. REL Midwest analyzed these data to identify mobility rates and mobility patterns over time. The study also examined whether different educator characteristics and the characteristics of the exited schools (that is, the schools educators moved from) were related to the odds that Wisconsin educators continuing their employment would change schools rather than stay employed in the same school. The study found that an average of 8 percent of teachers changed schools between consecutive years, and 19.4 percent changed schools within a five-year span. Teachers’ years of experience, licensure area, schools’ academic performance, percentage of students in the schools who were economically disadvantaged, school setting, size, and region in the state were related to the one-year and five-year mobility rates for teachers. One- and five-year mobility rates for principals averaged 11.9 and 30 percent, respectively. Principal one- and five-year mobility rates were related to principals’ years of experience, percentage of students in the school who were academically proficient, and whether the school was located in an urban setting.
|REL 2017194||Stated Briefly: An examination of the movement of educators within Iowa
The Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Midwest conducted a study on the mobility of public school teachers and principals (including assistant principals) within Iowa and presents average one-year and five-year mobility rates between 2006/07 and 2010/11. The study used the staffing data for the 2006/07 through 2011/12 school years and data on school-level performance and demographics for the same school years. REL Midwest analyzed these data to identify mobility rates and mobility patterns over time. The study also examined whether different educator characteristics and the characteristics of the exited schools (that is, the schools educators moved from) were related to the odds that Iowa educators continuing their employment would change schools rather than stay employed in the same school. The study found that an average of 6.7 percent of teachers changed schools between consecutive years, and 18.9 percent changed schools within a five-year span. Teachers’ years of experience, teacher gender, licensure area, percentage of students in the schools who are economically disadvantaged, schools’ academic performance, and region in the state all predict the five-year mobility rates for teachers. One- and five-year mobility rates for principals averaged 9.2 and 27.5 percent, respectively. Principal one- and five-year mobility rates were related to principals’ years of experience, school size, and region within the state.
|REL 2017185||An examination of the movement of educators within and across three Midwest Region states
The Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Midwest conducted a study on the mobility of teachers and administrators in public schools within and between Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. This study was the first to examine educator mobility within and among these three states using the same methodology across the states. The study used the staffing data for the 2005/06 through 2012/13 school years and data on school-level performance and demographics for the same school years from the three states. REL Midwest analyzed these data to identify mobility rates and mobility patterns over time, both within and across states. The study also examined whether different educator characteristics and the characteristics of the exited schools (that is, the schools educators moved from) were related to the odds that educators continuing their employment would change schools rather than stay employed in the same school. The study found that on average 6.8 percent of educators in Iowa, 9.3 percent in Minnesota, and 8.2 percent in Wisconsin moved to another school within state annually between 2006/07 and 2010/11. Teacher mobility rates were found to vary by subject areas and across regions within states. Less than 0.1 percent of educators in these three states moved to another of the three participating states between 2005/06 and 2011/12. Teachers were more likely to be mobile if they had less teaching experience, were in urban schools, or taught in schools with lower academic performance, fewer students, or more economically disadvantaged students. The relationships between these factors and principal mobility were less consistent.
|REL 2017206||Characteristics and education outcomes of Utah high school dropouts who re-enrolled
While numerous studies have examined the national dropout crisis, comparatively little is known about students who drop out but later return to high school. Following a cohort of students expected to graduate from Utah public schools in 2011 after four years of high school, this report describes the extent of dropout and reenrollment statewide; how dropout and reenrollment rates differed by demographic characteristics; how academic progress differed for re-enrollees prior to leaving school compared to students who graduated without an interruption in enrollment and dropouts who did not return; and the final high school outcomes of dropouts who came back to school. Findings indicate that while three-fourths of the students in the 2011 graduating cohort earned a diploma in four years, about a fifth of the students dropped out and, among them, about a fifth returned to school by 2011. Students with certain demographic characteristics were more likely to drop out and less likely to reenroll, such as Black students and English learner students, putting them at particular risk for not graduating. The percentage of dropouts who reenrolled decreased with each year of school, but some re-enrollees still earned a diploma. Among those who had dropped out and reenrolled by 2011, 26 percent graduated on time with the cohort. Among those who dropped out and reenrolled by 2013—extending the analysis two years beyond the conventional four years of high school—the graduation rate for re-enrollees increased to 30 percent. Results show that while dropping out is not necessarily a permanent outcome, re-enrollees as a group are at risk for poor graduation outcomes. Identifying and supporting dropouts who return for another chance to graduate can boost their chances to earn a diploma.
|REL 2017204||Scaling academic planning in community college: A randomized controlled trial
Community college students often lack an academic plan to guide their choices of coursework to achieve their educational goals, in part because counseling departments typically lack the capacity to advise students at scale. This randomized controlled trial tests the impact of guaranteed access to one of two alternative counseling sessions (group workshops or one-on-one counseling), each of which was combined with targeted “nudging." Outcome measures included scheduling and attending the counseling session, completing an academic plan, and re-enrolling in the following semester. Evidence suggests that both variations on the intervention increase academic plan completion rates by over 20 percentage points compared to a control group that did not receive guaranteed access to a counseling session or the automated nudges. Exploratory evidence suggests that when combined with nudging, the guarantee of workshop counseling is as effective as the guarantee of one-on-one counseling in causing students to schedule and attend academic planning appointments.
|REL 2017188||Leadership characteristics and practices in South Carolina charter schools
The purpose of this descriptive study was to identify characteristics of charter school leaders in South Carolina, determine how they spend their work hours, understand the time they spend on challenges to their work, and learn who influences their schools' policies. REL Southeast researchers collaborated with the South Carolina Department of Education (SCDE) and other charter school policymakers and practitioners to develop a survey based on items from the school and principal questionnaires of the U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics Schools and Staffing Survey. SCDE administered the survey to the 66 leaders in charter schools across the state operating during the 2014/15 school year. Forty leaders provided responses. Results indicate that the leaders have many similar demographic, educational, and employment characteristics and reasons for becoming charter school leaders. They worked an average almost 60 hours per week, spending more hours on activities related to communication with families and on school regulations and policies than on other tasks. Many of them spent time daily on school safety. A majority of the leaders were frequently challenged by state education agency requirements and services and sponsor intervention, but leaders were rarely or never challenged by staffing issues or board intervention. In addition, the leaders reported having more influence than any other entity over most of their schools' policies, except policies related to classroom instruction, academic guidance, athletics, and student assessment, which their staff influenced more and board membership policies that their board influenced more. This study was a first step toward understanding what characteristics and activities of charter school leaders in South Carolina may lead to improved school performance. Further research is needed to link school leadership characteristics and time management practices to school and student performance and other outcomes.
|REL 2017190||Teachers' responses to feedback from evaluators: What feedback characteristics matter?
This study describes teacher's experiences with feedback and identifies factors that may influence teachers' use of feedback by examining teachers' perceptions of feedback provided as part of the district's teacher evaluation system. Using data from Regional Educational Laboratory Central's Examining Evaluator Feedback survey, researchers sought to understand how teachers' responses to feedback are influenced by their perceptions of the characteristics of the feedback. The study also examined teachers' ratings of the importance of various characteristics of feedback in responding to feedback. Findings suggest that a teacher's response to feedback is related to four factors: their perceptions of the usefulness of the feedback, whether the feedback is an accurate portrayal of their performance, the extent to which their evaluator is credible, and the resources to which they have access. Additionally, teacher perceptions of evaluator credibility and feedback usefulness could be more important than perceptions of accuracy and access to resources when teachers determine how to respond to their feedback.
|REL 2017187||Advanced course enrollment and performance among English learner students in Washington state
Taking advanced high school courses (for example, honors, Advanced Placement, and dual-credit courses that offer college credits in high school) can help prepare students for postsecondary education and careers. English learner students, however, face unique obstacles to taking advanced courses because they must divide their time between acquiring English proficiency and learning academic content. This descriptive study examines patterns in advanced coursetaking among current and former English learner students and never-English learner students in Washington state. Using state data about students enrolled in Washington public schools between 2009/10 and 2012/13, this study analyzed advanced course enrollment patterns and performance among the groups of students. It finds that where students attend school and their academic preparation account for much of the difference in advanced coursetaking. Specifically, current and former English learner students take 0.5 to 1 fewer advanced courses per school year than their never-English learner peers but enroll in advanced classes at similar rates when they are similarly prepared. The study also found that, compared to never-English learner students, current and former English learner students are 40 to 50 percent less likely to complete algebra I in middle school and students who pass this course in middle school take more than twice as many upper-level math courses as students who pass algebra I in grade 9. Current, former, and never-English learner students earn similar grades in those upper-level math courses. In addition, schools with the lowest percentages of current and former English learner students offer more advanced courses than other schools, even after accounting for school characteristics such as average standardized math and reading test scores. To improve access to advanced courses, schools, districts, and state agencies could consider investigating why current and former English learner students with high grade point averages or state math test scores are not enrolling in advanced courses as often as never-English learner students. They also might address language barriers and restrictive policies that could deter otherwise qualified students from taking advanced courses and expand advanced coursetaking opportunities at schools with high percentages of English learner students.
|REL 2017191||The content, predictive power, and potential bias in five widely used teacher observation instruments
This study was designed to inform decisions about the selection and use of five widely-used teacher observation instruments. The purpose was to explore (1) patterns across instruments in the dimensions of instruction that they measure, (2) relationships between teachers' scores in specific dimensions of instruction and their contributions to student achievement growth (value-added), and (3) whether teachers' observation ratings depend on the types of students they are assigned to teach. Researchers analyzed the content of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS), Framework for Teaching (FFT), Protocol for Language Arts Teaching Observations (PLATO), Mathematical Quality of Instruction (MQI), and UTeach Observational Protocol (UTOP). The content analysis then informed correlation analyses using data from the Gates Foundation's Measures of Effective Teaching (MET) project. Participants were 5,409 4th-9th grade math and English language arts (ELA) teachers from six school districts. Observation ratings were correlated with teachers' value-added scores and with three composition measures: proportions of nonwhite students, low-income students, and low achieving students in the classroom. Results show that eight of ten dimensions of instruction are captured in all five instruments, but instruments differ in the number and types of elements they assess within each dimension. Observation ratings in all dimensions with quantitative data were significantly but modestly correlated with teachers' value-added scores—with classroom management showing the strongest and most consistent correlations. Finally, among teachers who were randomly assigned to groups of students, observation ratings for some instruments were associated with the proportion of nonwhite and lower achieving students in the classroom, more often in ELA classes than in math classes. Findings reflect conceptual consistency across the five instruments, but also differences in the coverage and the specific practices they assess within a given dimension. They also suggest that observation scores for classroom management more strongly and consistently predict teacher contributions to student achievement growth than scores in other dimensions. Finally, the results indicate that the types of students assigned to a teacher can affect observation ratings, particularly in ELA classrooms. When selecting among instruments, states and districts should consider which provide the best coverage of priority dimensions, how much weight to attach to various observation scores in their evaluation of teacher effectiveness, and how they might target resources toward particular classrooms to reduce the likelihood of bias in ratings.
|REL 2017265||What does it mean when a study finds no effects?
This short brief for education decisionmakers discusses three main factors that may contribute to a finding of no effects: failure of theory, failure of implementation, and failure of research design. It provides readers with questions to ask themselves to better understand 'no effects' findings, and describes other contextual factors to consider when deciding what to do next.
|REL 2017203||Investigating Developmental and college-level course enrollment and passing before and after Florida's developmental education reform
Beginning with 2014 fall semester, developmental education in Florida was made optional for most students. This report compares enrollment and passing rates in developmental reading, writing, and mathematics courses as well as gateway English and mathematics courses for a cohort of first-time-in-college students in fall 2014 to three cohorts of students in the fall semesters prior to 2014. Compared to prior semesters, once developmental education became optional fewer students enrolled in developmental education courses. Passing rates for developmental education courses in reading, writing, and math increased an average of 2.0 percentage points over fall 2013. More students enrolled in gateway (entry-level, college-credit bearing) courses. Gateway course passing rates declined compared to previous years, with the largest declines occurring in intermediate algebra. The proportion of the first-time-in-college fall cohort students passing a gateway course increased compared to previous years.
|REL 2017177||Academic outcomes for North Carolina Virtual Public School credit recovery students
This report describes the results of a REL Southeast study comparing short- and longer-term student successes after completion of online credit recovery courses compared to student successes after completion of other credit recovery options, such as traditional face-to-face courses and summer school courses. Credit recovery refers to when a student fails a course and then retakes the same course to earn high school credit. This research question was motivated by the growing importance of online learning in traditional public school settings and a desire on the part of many stakeholders to understand better how students are adjusting to that transition. The data for this study covered eleven core high school courses (courses required for graduation) taken between 2008/09 and 2011/12 in North Carolina. The study compares the likelihood of a student: (a) succeeding on the state end-of-course test for the recovered course; (b) succeeding in the next course in a recovered course sequence (for instance, in English II after English I); (c) remaining in school after credit recovery; and (d) graduating and graduating on time. Results suggest that there was little difference between the short-term success rates of students who completed state-supported online credit recovery and students who completed other credit recovery options. However, on measures of longer-term success, students who completed state-provided online credit recovery courses and did not subsequently drop out were more likely than other credit recovery students to graduate on time. Among credit recovery participants in state-provided online courses, Black students were less likely to reach proficiency in their recovered courses but more likely than their peers to succeed in later coursework after their online experience. Because of limitations in the analyses possible with available data, it is not possible to directly attribute these outcomes to participation in online credit recovery, but the results do point toward intriguing and potentially beneficial areas for future, more rigorous study.
|REL 2017181||Projections of California teacher retirements: A county and regional perspective
This report updates a previously published report by projecting California teacher retirements, at the state and county level and by specific teaching fields, during the period from 2014/15 through 2023/24. Teacher retirement projections are based on the current ages of teachers and historical age- and county-specific retirement rates. The study finds that 25 percent of all of California's 2013/14 teachers are projected to retire by 2024. Great variation exists across counties in the proportion of the 2013/14 teacher workforce projected to retire by 2024, with a low of 19 percent projected to retire in Sutter County to a high of 61 percent in Sierra County. This suggests that counties across the state will confront very different staffing situations over the 10-year period due to projected retirements. In terms of the geographic distribution, the more rural counties that are projected to have higher retirement rates tend to lie along the state's northern coast and along the state's northern and eastern borders; lower proportions of retirements are projected in and around the metropolitan areas of San Francisco, Sacramento, Orange County/Los Angeles, and Fresno. This report also projects teacher retirements within specific teaching fields, including math, science, English language arts, and special education. Results from these field-specific projections show that, at the state level, from 22 to 26 percent of teachers in these various fields are projected to retire over the 10-year period. However, within these particular fields there is wide variation across counties in projected retirements. With research showing that graduates of teacher preparation programs tend to prefer living close to their hometowns, coupled with a projected statewide shortage of college-educated adults through at least 2025, careful local workforce planning will be essential, particularly in counties projected to experience high proportions of teacher retirements.
|REL 2017189||Teacher demographics and evaluation: A descriptive study in a large urban district
This descriptive study analyzed teacher characteristics, such as age, race, and gender and teachers' evaluation outcomes in a large, urban district in the Northeast. Descriptive analyses of frequencies were conducted to examine the characteristics, summative performance ratings, and improvement on ratings over time for approximately 3,000 teachers in each year (2012/13, 2013/14, and 2014/15). Results indicate that a disproportionate percentage of teachers age 50 and older, black teachers, and male teachers were rated below proficient compared to their representation in the total population of teachers. Examining the data over three years revealed that while the percentage of older teachers, black teachers, and male teachers who received below proficient ratings decreased over time in some cases, the gaps between their ratings and the ratings of their younger, white, and female counterparts persisted. Moreover, these analyses revealed that the percentage of teachers who improved their ratings during all three year-to-year comparisons did not vary by teacher characteristics, that is, by race, age, or gender. These results suggest that there are meaningful differences in teachers' evaluation outcomes by age, race, and gender, and that these differences have persisted over time. Therefore, the district may want to consider what programs or policies aimed specifically at these teachers and their evaluators may increase their chances for improvement and reduce the gaps. In addition, longitudinal research is needed to examine whether these patterns continue to persist over time or whether district-level interventions and supports might reduce the gaps or otherwise address the disproportionate below proficient ratings among teachers in certain groups.
|REL 2017174||Benchmarking the state of Kosrae's education management information system
The purpose of this study was to provide information on the current quality of the education management information system (EMIS) in Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia, so that data specialists, administrators, and policy makers might identify areas for improvement. As part of a focus group interview, knowledgeable data specialists in Kosrae responded to 46 questions covering significant areas of their EMIS. The interview protocol, adapted by Regional Educational Laboratory Pacific from the World Bank's System Assessment and Benchmarking for Education Results assessment tool, provides a means for rating aspects of an EMIS system using four benchmarking levels: latent (the process or action required to improve the aspect of quality is not in place), emerging (the process or action is in progress of implementation), established (the process or action is in place and it meets standards), and mature (the process or action is an example of best practice). Overall, data specialists scored their EMIS as established, or meeting standards. They reported that the prerequisites of quality, that is, both the institutional frameworks that govern the information system and data reporting, and the supporting resources, are established. They rated integrity of education statistics, referring to the professionalism, objectivity, transparency, and ethical standards by which staff operate and statistics are reported, as established. Data specialists reported the accuracy and reliability of education statistics within their system as mature. They reported that the serviceability (the relevance, timeliness, and consistency of data) and accessibility of education data within their system are established. Results show that data specialists know and can apply sound techniques and validate data and generate statistical reports, and that the institutional frameworks and resources meet standards. Data specialists believe that the system could provide better opportunities for user input and that users should be able to request the level of detail they need from data catalogues. The results of this study provide the Kosrae State Department of Education and the National Department of Education with information regarding the strengths and areas of the EMIS that may benefit from improvement efforts through the development of action plans focused on priority areas.