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Baker, B.D., Taylor, L., Levin, J., Chambers, J., and Blankenship, C. (2013). Adjusted Poverty Measures and the Distribution of Title I Aid: Does Title I Really Make the Rich States Richer? Education Finance and Policy, 8(3): 394–417. Retrieved from

Brown, P.S. (2002). Impact of Title I Formula Factors on School Year 2000-2001 State Allocations. Journal of Official Statistics, 18(3): 441–463. Retrieved from

Cascio, E.U., Gordon, N., and Reber, S. (2013). Local Responses to Federal Grants: Evidence From the Introduction of Title I in the South. American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, 5(3): 126–159. Retrieved from

Dynarski, M., and Kainz, K. (2015). Why Federal Spending on Disadvantaged Students (Title I) Doesn’t Work. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution. Retrieved from

Feder, J., and Skinner, R. (2016). Proposed Regulations on the Supplement, Not Supplant Provision That Applies to the Title I-A Program Authorized by the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from

Figlio, D.N., and Hart, C.M.D. (2010). Competitive Effects of Means-Tested School Vouchers (No. w16056). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved from

Gordon, N. (2004). Do Federal Grants Boost School Spending? Evidence From Title I. Journal of Public Economics, 88(9–19): 1771–1792. Retrieved from

Gordon, N. (2016). Increasing Targeting, Flexibility, and Transparency in Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act to Help Disadvantaged Students. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution. Retrieved from

Hanna, R. (2015). How ESEA Title I, Part A, Funding Can Better Serve the Most Disadvantaged Students. Washington, DC: Center for American Progress. Retrieved from

Heuer, R., and Stullich, S. (2011). Comparability of State and Local Expenditures Among Schools Within Districts: A Report from the Study of School-Level Expenditures. Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Evaluation and Policy Development, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from

Houck, E.A., and Debray, E. (2015). The Shift From Adequacy to Equity in Federal Education Policymaking: A Proposal for How ESEA Could Reshape the State Role in Education Finance. RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences, 1(3): 148–167. Retrieved from

Liu, G. (2008). Improving Title I Funding Equity Across State, Districts, and Schools. Iowa Law Review93(3): 973–1013. Retrieved from

Miller, R.T. (2009). Secret Recipes Revealed: Demystifying the Title I, Part A Funding Formulas.  Washington, DC: Center for American Progress. Retrieved from

Neuberger, Z., and Riddle, W. (2015). How to Identify Low-Income Students in “Community Eligibility” Schools for Title I Purposes. Washington, DC: Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. Retrieved from

Riddle, W. (2002). Education for the Disadvantaged: ESEA Title I Reauthorization Issues. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from

Riddle, W. (2011). Title I and High Schools: Addressing the Needs of Disadvantaged Students at All Grade Levels. Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education. Retrieved from

Riddle, W. (2015). Issues in the Allocation of ESEA Title I Funds to Charter Schools. Washington, DC: National Alliance for Public Charter Schools. Retrieved from

Riddle, W., and White, L. (1997). Expenditures in Public School Districts: Estimates of Disparities and Analysis of Their Causes. In W.J. Fowler Jr. (Ed.), Developments in School Finance, 1996 (NCES 97-535) (pp. 23–36). Retrieved from

Roza, M., Miller, L., and Hill, P. (2005). Strengthening Title I to Help High-Poverty Schools: How Title I Funds Fit Into District Allocation Patterns. Seattle, WA: Center on Reinventing Public Education, University of Washington. Retrieved from

Stullich, S. (2011). The Potential Impact of Revising the Title I Comparability Requirement to Focus on School-Level Expenditures. Washington, DC: Policy and Program Studies Service, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from

Stullich, S., Eisner, E., and McCrary, J. (2007). National Assessment of Title I, Final Report: Volume 1: Implementation of Title I. U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance. Retrieved from

Wong, K.K. (2011). The Design of the Rhode Island School Funding Formula: Toward a Coherent System of Allocating State Aid to Public Schools. Washington, DC: Center for American Progress. Retrieved from

Wong, K.K. (2014). Federal Educational Policy as an Anti-Poverty Strategy. Notre Dame Journal of Law, Ethics & Public Policy, 16(2): 421–445. Retrieved from

Wong, K.K., and Nicotera, A.C. (2004). Educational Quality and Policy Redesign: Reconsidering the NAR and Federal Title I Policy. Peabody Journal of Education, 79(1): 87–104. Retrieved from

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