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- Summary
- Introduction
- Acknowledgements
- Indicators Part I: Population and School Enrollment
- Indicators Part II: Academic Performance
- Indicator 5: Reading, Mathematics, and Science Performance of Fourth-Grade Students
- Indicator 6: Mathematics and Science Performance of Eighth-Grade Students
- Indicator 7: Reading, Mathematics, and Science Literacy Performance of 15-Year-Old Students
- Indicator 8: Adult Performance in Literacy, Numeracy, and Problem Solving in Technology-Rich Environments
- Indicator 9: Performance of Fourth-Grade Students on Subscales in Reading, Mathematics, and Science
- Indicator 10: Performance of Eighth-Grade Students on Subscales in Mathematics and Science
- Indicator 11: Performance of 15-Year-Old Students on Subscales in Mathematics Literacy
- Indicator 12: Changes in the Reading, Mathematics, and Science Performance of Fourth-Grade Students
- Indicator 13: Changes in the Mathematics and Science Performance of Eighth-Grade Students
- Indicator 14: Changes in 15-Year-Olds' Performance in Reading, Mathematics, and Science Literacy

- Indicators Part III: Contexts for Learning
- Indicators Part IV: Expenditure for Education
- Indicators Part V: Education Returns: Educational Attainment and Income
- List of Tables
- List of Exhibit and Figures
- References
- Appendix A: The Education Systems of the G-20 Countries
- PDF & Related Info
- Contact

*G-20 Countries Included: Australia, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea,
Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, United Kingdom (England and Scotland),
United States*

Eighth-grade students' mean scores in both mathematics and science increased between 1995 and 2011 in the United States; between 2007 and 2011 in Saudi Arabia and Turkey; and between both 1995 and 2007 and 2011 in the Republic of Korea and the Russian Federation.

In order to provide information on changes in student perfor- mance, TIMSS has been conducted every 4 years since 1995. Drawing on these data, Indicator 13 examines how eighth-grade mean student performance in mathematics and science in 201 (the most recent assessment year) has changed since 2007 (the next most recent assessment year) and 1995 (the initial assessment year). For each subject, the indicator first identifies the countries in which there have been changes in students' mean performance and then describes the time period or periods over which that change occurred.

Eighth-grade students' mean scores in 201 in both mathematics and science increased from 1995 in the United States; from 2007 in Saudi Arabia and Turkey; and from both 1995 and 2007 in the Republic of Korea and the Russian Federation.

In mathematics, there were measurable differences over time in 7 of the 1 G-20 countries participating in at least two cycles of eighth-grade TIMSS; most of the differences were in the direction of growth (figure 13-1). In the Republic of Korea and the Russian Federation, eighth-grade students' mean scores were higher in 201 than in both 1995 and 2007. In Italy, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey, students' mean scores were higher in 201 than in 2007, and in the United States, students' mean scores were higher in 2011 than in 1995. The U.S. mean score increased 17 points, from 492 to 509, between 1995 and 2011. In comparison, the increases in students' mean scores were 15 and 32 points for the Russian Federation and the Republic of Korea, respectively, over this time period. The largest increase among the G-20 countries was in Saudi Arabia, where students' mean score in mathematics increased 64 points, from 329 to 394, between 2007 and 2011. The mean score of students in Japan decreased 11 points between 1995 and 2011.

In science, there were measurable differences over time in 6 of the 11 G-20 countries participating in at least two cycles of eighth-grade TIMSS, with most of the differences again in the direction of growth (figure 13-1). Again, in the Republic of Korea and the Russian Federation, eighth-grade students' mean scores were higher in 201 than in both 1995 and 2007. In Saudi Arabia and Turkey, students' mean scores were higher in 201 than in 2007, and in the United States, students' mean scores were higher in 2011 than in 1995. The U.S. mean score increased 12 points, from 513 to 525, between 1995 and 2011. In comparison, the increases in students' mean scores were 14 and 20 points for the Republic of Korea and the Russian Federation, respectively, over this time period. The largest increase among the G-20 countries was in Saudi Arabia, where students' mean score in science increased 33 points, from 403 to 436, between 2007 and 2011. The mean score of students in Indonesia decreased 21 points between 2007 and 2011.

In TIMSS 2011 at the eighth grade, countries were required to sample students in the grade that corresponded to the end of 8 years of formal schooling (the end of primary school), providing that the mean age at the time of testing was at least 13.5 years. As defined by TIMSS, the first year of formal schooling begins with the first year of primary school (ISCED97 level 1), which should mark the beginning of formal instruction in reading, writing, and mathematics. (Note that kindergarten is not counted.) For most countries, the target grade was eighth grade or its national equivalent.

TIMSS scores are reported on a scale from 0 to 1,000, with the scale average fixed at 500 and the standard deviation fixed at 100. Since the TIMSS achievement scales were designed to reliably measure student achievement over time, the metric of the scales was established originally in 1995, the first year in which the assessment was administered.