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- Summary
- Introduction
- Acknowledgements
- Indicators Part I: Population and School Enrollment
- Indicators Part II: Academic Performance
- Indicator 5: Reading, Mathematics, and Science Performance of Fourth-Grade Students
- Indicator 6: Mathematics and Science Performance of Eighth-Grade Students
- Indicator 7: Reading, Mathematics, and Science Literacy Performance of 15-Year-Old Students
- Indicator 8: Adult Performance in Literacy, Numeracy, and Problem Solving in Technology-Rich Environments
- Indicator 9: Performance of Fourth-Grade Students on Subscales in Reading, Mathematics, and Science
- Indicator 10: Performance of Eighth-Grade Students on Subscales in Mathematics and Science
- Indicator 11: Performance of 15-Year-Old Students on Subscales in Mathematics Literacy
- Indicator 12: Changes in the Reading, Mathematics, and Science Performance of Fourth-Grade Students
- Indicator 13: Changes in the Mathematics and Science Performance of Eighth-Grade Students
- Indicator 14: Changes in 15-Year-Olds' Performance in Reading, Mathematics, and Science Literacy

- Indicators Part III: Contexts for Learning
- Indicators Part IV: Expenditure for Education
- Indicators Part V: Education Returns: Educational Attainment and Income
- List of Tables
- List of Exhibit and Figures
- References
- Appendix A: The Education Systems of the G-20 Countries
- PDF & Related Info
- Contact

*G-20 Countries Included: Australia, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea,
Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, United Kingdom (England), United States*

In terms of rankings relative to other G-20 countries, the United States performed stronger on the algebra subscale in eighth-grade mathematics than on the number, geometry, or data and chance subscales.

In TIMSS 2011, as in previous cycles, the overall performance scales in mathematics and science were composed of subscales that allow for a more detailed look at student performance in specific subcontent areas. Indicator 10 examines the mean performance of eighth-grade students on these subscales in order to highlight the relative strengths and weaknesses in mathematics and science both within and across the participating G-20 countries.

In TIMSS 2011, the mathematics subscales in grade 8, which relate to specific content
domains, include: *number*, *algebra*, *geometry*, and *dataand
chance*. The smallest range in mean scores between the lowest and highest
performing G-20 countries was in *algebra*, with a 224-point difference (figure 10-1). The range between countries
on the three other subscales was similar but larger, with 243 , 247-, and 240-point
differences in *number*, *geometry*, and *data and chance*,
respectively. Compared with other participating G-20 countries, the United States
performed strongest on the *algebra* subscale, with a mean score (512) that
was lower than the mean scores of three G-20 countries, but higher than those of
six others. Three countries also had higher mean scores than the United States in
*number* and *dataand chance*, although two countries in *number*,
and one in *data and chance*, had mean scores not measurably different from
the U.S. score. *Geometry*was the weakest area for the United States, with
a mean score (485) that was lower than the scores of six countries and higher than
those of three others. The mean scores of students in the Republic of Korea and
Japan were higher than the mean scores of U.S. students on all four subscales. Students
from the Russian Federation also outperformed U.S. students in *number*,
*algebra*, and *geometry*, but underperformed U.S. students in *data
and chance*. U.S. students outperformed students in Turkey, Indonesia, and
Saudi Arabia on all four subscales and in Italy on all subscales except *geometry*;
on the *geometry* subscale, Italian students had a higher mean score than
U.S. students (512 vs. 485, respectively).

The science subscales in TIMSS 2011 also relate to specific content domains: *biology*,
*chemistry*, *physics*, and *Earth science.* The range of mean
scores among the participating G-20 countries on the science subscales was smaller
than the range on the mathematics subscales (with 151-, 182-, 180-, and 137-point
differences in *biology*, *chemistry*, *physics*, and *Earth
science,* respectively) (figure 10-1).
The U.S. mean scores on the *Earthscience* (533) and *biology* (530)
subscales were lower than the mean scores of Japan and the Republic of Korea; not
measurably different from the mean scores of the United Kingdom (England), the Russian
Federation, and Australia; and higher than those of four other countries. On the
*chemistry* subscale, Japan, the Russian Federation, and the Republic of
Korea had higher mean scores than the United States; the U.S. mean score (520) was
not measurably different from the score of the United Kingdom (England), but was
higher than those of the remaining five countries. On the *physics* subscale,
the Republic of Korea, Japan, the Russian Federation, and the United Kingdom (England)
had higher mean scores than the United States; the U.S. mean score (513) was not
measurably different from Australia's, but was higher than those of the remaining
four countries.

In TIMSS 201 at the eighth grade, countries were required to sample students in the grade that corresponded to the end of 8 years of formal schooling, providing that the mean age at the time of testing was at least 13.5 years. As defined by TIMSS, the first year of formal schooling begins with the first year of primary school (ISCED97 level 1), which should mark the beginning of formal instruction in reading, writing, and mathematics. (Note that kindergarten is not counted.) For most countries, the target grade was eighth grade or its national equivalent.

TIMSS scores are reported on a scale from 0 to 1,000, with the scale average fixed
at 500 and the standard deviation fixed at 100. Since the TIMSS achievement scales
were designed to reliably measure student achievement over time, the metric of the
scales was established originally in 1995, the first year in which the assessment
was administered. The TIMSS 2011 assessment at the eighth grade includes four domains
that define the mathematics content covered: *number*, *algebra*,
*geometry*, and *data and chance*. The *number* content domain
includes understanding numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships among
numbers, and number systems. The *algebra* content domain includes recognizing
and extending patterns, using algebraic symbols to represent mathematical situations,
and developing fluency in producing equivalent expressions and solving linear equations.
The *geometry* content domain includes analyzing the properties and characteristics
of a variety of two- and three-dimensional geometric figures, including lengths
of sides and sizes of angles, and providing explanations based on geometric relationships.
The *data and chance* content domain includes knowing how to organize data
that have been collected and how to display data in graphs and charts that will
be useful in answering questions, as well as understanding issues related to misinterpretation
of data.

The TIMSS 2011 assessment at the eighth grade includes four domains that define
the science content covered: *biology*, *chemistry*, *physics*,
and *Earth science*. Together, these content domains cover most of the topics
in the various countries' curricula. The *biology* content domain includes
students' understanding of the structure, life processes, diversity, and interdependence
of living organisms. The *chemistry* content domain includes students' understanding
of the classification and composition of matter, properties of matter, and chemical
change. The *physics* content domain includes students' understanding of
concepts related to physical processes and energy. The *Earth science* content
domain includes the study of Earth and its place in the solar system and the universe.