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Figure 12-1.  Changes in fourth-grade average scores in reading, mathematics, and science, by country: Selected years, 1995–2011

Changes in fourth-grade average scores in reading, mathematics, and science, by country: Selected years, 1995–2011

* p < .05. Score is statistically different from the 2011 score of the same country.
1 Indonesia did not participate in PIRLS 2001, and United Kingdom (Scotland) did not participate in 2011.
2 Germany, Italy, and the Russian Federation did not participate in TIMSS 1995; the Republic of Korea in 2007; and the United Kingdom (Scotland) in 2011.
NOTE: Australia, Japan, and the Republic of Korea do not have data from at least two administrations of PIRLS; and France and Indonesia do not have data from at least two administrations of TIMSS at the fourth grade and so they do not appear in the associated panels in the figure.
SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS), 2001, 2006, and 2011, and Trends in International
Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), 1995, 2007, and 2011.