NOTE: Education levels are defined according to the 1997 International Standard
Classification of Education (ISCED97). Ages represent the typical age at the beginning
of the school year. Numbers in bold print indicate ages of universal enrollment
(i.e., an enrollment rate of over 90 percent). Numbers highlighted represent the
age at which compulsory enrollment begins through the age at which compulsory enrollment
ends. No meaning should be inferred from width of subdivisions. Duration of first
university degree program is generally 4 years in Brazil.
SOURCE: UNESCO International Bureau of Education, "World Data on Education: Brazil," Retrieved April 1, 2013, from http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/WDE/2010/
pdf-versions/Brazil.pdf; World Education Services, "World Education Profiles: Brazil," Retrieved on April 1, 2013, from http://www.wes.org/ca/wedb/brazil/bredov.htm.
NOTE: In Brazil, it is mandatory for children to go to school from age 6 to 14. Children under the age of 6 may be enrolled as long as they turn 6 in the first semester. These compulsory 9 years of education are known as "fundamental education" (ensino fundamental) and are divided into levels I and II.
NOTE: The normal practice in Brazilian schools, both public and private, is to mix all academic levels together in the same class.
NOTE: Although not compulsory, upper secondary schooling is considered part of basic education. The Brazilian government separates technical education from secondary schools; thus, technical education is outside of the formal ensino médio. Students who complete basic vocational training at the secondary level receive a Certificado de Habilitaçáo Básico (Certificate of Basic Training), which enables them to take a university entrance examination, enter the job market, or undergo further technical training leading to a Diploma de Técnico de Nivel Medio (Diploma of Intermediate-Level Technician) or Diploma de Técnico de 2º Grau (Diploma of Technician of the Second Level).
NOTE: Higher education is provided at two levels of study: graduate and postgraduate. The latter includes both lato sensu (refresher courses, further education, or specialization courses) and stricto sensu (master's and doctoral programs). Higher education is provided by higher education institutes and universities. High-level training of professionals for one or more professions or careers is provided mainly by nonuniversity institutions. Universities must promote basic and applied research, as well as provide services to the community in the form of courses and other extension activities.
Anglo Info. Brazil: The School System. Retrieved April 1, 2013, from http://brazil.angloinfo.com/family/schooling-educa-tion/school-system/.
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (2013a). Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators. Paris: Author.
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, International Bureau of Education. (2010). World Data on Education, 2010/11 (7th edition). Profile on Brazil. Paris: Author. Retrieved April 1, 2013, from http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/WDE/210/ pdf-versions/Brazil.pdf.
World Education Services. Brazil: Educational Review. Retrieved April 1, 2013, from http://www.wes.org/ca/wedb/brazil/bredov.htm.
4 The duration of compulsory education is currently 9 years (ending at age 15, as shown here and in the accompanying figure A-3). However, a 2009 constitutional amendment mandated that, by 2016, compulsory education be extended to age 17. Indicator 2 reports the latter figure and so will differ from the information presented here.