Differences in the structure of countries' education systems often make international comparisons difficult. To improve the comparability of education indicators, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization created an internationally comparable method for describing levels of education across countries called the International Standard Classifi ation of Education (ISCED). This classification system was revised in 1997 and is referred to as the ISCED97. Using the ISCED97 classifi ations as a starting point, NCES worked with education professionals in the G-20 countries to create an overview of each country's education system.
There are differences within the education systems of some G-20 countries because responsibilities and oversight for education take place at the regional or local level. However, the charts and accompanying text in this appendix are intended to give the reader a general overview of the education system in each G-20 country, from the preprimary to the doctoral level.
The reader is encouraged to seek out additional resources to gain a fuller understanding of each country's education system. A list of websites with additional information is provided at the end of this Reader's Guide, and additional sources are cited after each country's education system is presented.
How to read the charts
Each of the charts on the following pages is a broad representation of the education
system of a G-20 country. The charts are not intended to show all possible pathways
that a student can take or the many configurations of grades that may be found within
the same school. Rather, each chart is intended to provide a general description
that is useful for comparison across the G-20 countries.
The colors on each chart correspond to ISCED97 levels (see next section). The ISCED97 term for each level of education is written within each block. The terms in italics in each block are a country's designation for that particular level (e.g., high school for upper secondary school). The left side of each chart is labeled with the typical ages corresponding to each level of education. The age labels represent the typical age at which a student begins the corresponding year of schooling; often, students are 1 year older at the end of the school year. Ages in bold text are the ages at which enrollment is universal, defined here as an enrollment rate of more than 90 percent.1 The rectangular box encasing some ages represents the range of ages at which enrollment is compul-sory, or required by law. (Also see Indicator 2 for information on the age range at which more than 90 percent of the population is enrolled in formal education and the ending age of compulsory education.2) The expected duration of a first university degree program, a bachelor's degree program in the United States, is listed in the note below each chart. On the right side of each chart are the years of schooling ("grade," in the United States) corre-sponding to each level of education. The first year of schooling corresponds to the first year of compulsory education. The ages and years listed assume normal progress through the education system.
The ISCED97 is a classification framework that allows the alignment of the content of education systems across countries using multiple classification criteria. The ISCED97 levels address the intent (e.g., to study basic subjects or prepare students for university) of each year of a particular education system, but do not indicate the depth or rigor of study in that year. Thus, the ISCED97 is useful when comparing the age range of students in upper secondary schools across nations; however, it does not indicate whether the curriculum and standards are equivalent within the same year of schooling across nations. The ISCED97 allows researchers to compile statistics on education internationally. The ISCED97 levels are as follows:
The text accompanying each chart is meant to give the reader more detail on each country's education system. The bulleted format is designed to make quick comparisons more convenient, and the text is divided into sections corresponding to the ISCED97 levels. The "NOTE" heading in each section presents information that is important, but that may not be included either in the chart or the bulleted text, including within-country variations or features of the education system that are unique to a particular country.
Websites with additional information
Russian Federation: http://www.euroeducation.net/prof/russco.htm
England, Northern Ireland, and Wales: http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/education/eurydice/documents/facts_and_figures/ education_structures_EN.pdf
1 When available for a country, universal enrollment data came from the
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's (OECD) Education at a Glance
(EAG) 2013: OECD Indicators, even when there was additional information available
from the country expert, in order to ensure consistent application of the shared
90 percent threshold across countries. In one case (China), the universal enrollment
data were not available from EAG and were provided by the country expert. In three
other cases (Saudi Arabia, South Africa, and Indonesia), data on universal enrollment
were not available.
2 In some cases, the data in EAG/Indicator 2 differed from what was provided by country experts. In cases, where the appendices provide different data from Indicator 2, these are indicated in footnotes along with the rationale.
3 In the international classification, more advanced postsecondary education (such as attending a 4-year college or university) is referred to as "tertiary education." In the current report, the term "higher education" is used because this term is more familiar to American readers.