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- Letter from the Commissioner
- Executive Summary
- List of Figures
- List of Tables
- Introduction
- Chapter 1: Demographic Context
- Chapter 2: Characteristics of Schools
- Chapter 3: Student Behaviors and Afterschool Activities
- Chapter 4: Academic Preparation and Achievement
- Chapter 5: College Knowledge
- Chapter 6: Postsecondary Education
- Chapter 7: Postsecondary Outcomes and Employment
- Chapter 8: Multivariate Analyses of Immediate Postsecondary Enrollment and Degree Attainment
- Methodology
- Interpreting Logistic Model Results
- Immediate Postsecondary Enrollment
- Degree Attainment
- Conclusion

- References
- Appendix A: Technical Appendix: Logistic Regression Analysis and Imputation Procedures
- Appendix B: Guide to Sources
- PDF & Related Info
- Contact

For the most part, results from the logistic regression analyses are presented in
the form of odds ratios that compare the odds^{9}
of an event occurring in one group to the odds of it occurring in another group,
after controlling for the effect of all of the other independent variables in the
model. Odds ratios are calculated for each of the categorical independent variables
used in the regression models and represent the likelihood of students in one category
of an independent variable (referred to as the identity group) completing an event
relative to a reference group. If the event is equally likely to occur for both
groups, then the odds ratio value equals one. If a category has an odds ratio that
is less than one, then students in the identity group have lower odds of immediate
postsecondary enrollment than students in the reference group. For example, the
odds ratio of 0.65 for males (table ELS-2) is the ratio of the odds of males immediately
enrolling in postsecondary education after high school to the odds of females immediately
enrolling, after accounting for the effect of all of the other independent variables
in the model. The odds ratio of 0.65 indicates that the odds of a male immediately
enrolling in postsecondary education after high school graduation are 35 percent
lower ((odds ratio – 1) × 100) than the odds for a female (i.e., males are less
likely than females to immediately enroll in postsecondary education). In this example,
females are the reference category for the independent variable. If a group category
has an odds ratio greater than one, then students in the identity category are more
likely to exhibit a certain outcome than students in the reference category. For
example, the odds ratio of 1.63 for students who first enrolled in a 4-year postsecondary
institution (table BPS-2) indicates that a student who first enrolled in a 4-year
institution has 63 percent higher odds of attaining a degree within 6 years than
a student who first enrolled in a less-than-4-year institution. For continuous independent
variables such as standardized test scores or number of postsecondary institution
transfers, results are also interpreted in the form of odds ratios based on one
unit of change in the independent variable. For example, in table ELS-2, the odds
ratio of 1.88 for 9th-grade GPA indicates that a one-point increase in a student's
9th-grade GPA value (e.g., from a 2.0 to a 3.0) is associated with an 88 percent
increase in the odds of the student immediately enrolling in postsecondary education.
Asterisks (*) are used in tables to denote findings that are statistically significant
at the .05 level. Detailed information about interpretation of the logistic regression
coefficients is provided in the technical appendix of this report.