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Status and Trends in the Education of American Indians and Alaska Natives: 2008

NCES 2008-084
September 2008

Persistence and Effort

Indicator 3.1: Absenteeism
Indicator 3.2: Suspension and Expulsion
Indicator 3.3: Graduation Rates
Indicator 3.4: Dropout Rates
     Highlight: Dropout Rates Including Institutionalized Youth
Indicator 3.5: Attainment Expectations

This section focuses on the persistence and effort that students put into their elementary and secondary education. Particular attention is paid to how American Indian/Alaska Native students compare to other population groups as they proceed through school. Indicators of student persistence and effort include how often students are absent from school, student educational attainment expectations, graduation rates, and whether students drop out of school. School problems such as absenteeism, suspension, and expulsion can compound and may lead eventually to dropping out of school, which has long-term negative consequences (Baker et al. 2001; Kaufman, Alt, and Chapman 2001; U.S. Department of Commerce 2006).