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Initial Results From the 2005 NHES Early Childhood Program Participation Survey

NCES 2006-075
May 2006

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Table 9. Percentage of children from birth through age 5 and not yet in kindergarten whose families are receiving assistance for child care costs, by type of weekly care arrangement and child and family characteristics: 2005
Characteristic Number of children (thousands) Receive assistance for child care
  Total 8,79119
Arrangement type
Relative 1,08525
Nonrelative 2,46411
Center-based 5,86320
Childís age
Less than 1 year 92419
1-2 years 3,10620
3-5 years 4,76218
Childís sex
Male 4,52019
Female 4,27118
Childís race/ethnicity
White, non-Hispanic 5,36012
Black, non-Hispanic 1,37439
Hispanic 1,28223
Asian or Pacific Islander, non-Hispanic 26113
Other race, non-Hispanic151526
Family type
Two parents 6,70310
One parent 1,95047
Nonparent guardian(s) 13847
Parentsí language spoken most at home2
Both/only parent(s) speak(s) English 8,05819
One of two parents speaks English 12518
No parent speaks English 60817
Motherís level of education3
Less than a high school 33138
High school/GED 1,85233
Vocational/technical or some college 2,55621
Bachelorís degree 2,2919
Graduate or professional education
  or degree
Motherís school enrollment status3
Enrolled 1,33232
Not enrolled 7,28716
Motherís employment status3
35 or more hours per week 4,67316
Less than 35 hours per week 2,03619
Looking for work 37558
Not in the labor force 1,53516
Motherís work shift3, 4
Regular shift 6,02816
Variable shift 68124
Neighborhood conditions5
Concern regarding neighborhood
  health and safety conditions
No concern regarding neighborhood
  health and safety conditions
Household income
$25,000 or less 1,73452
$25,001 to $50,000 1,71721
$50,001 to $75,000 2,00811
$75,001 to $100,000 1,4875
$100,001 or more 1,8455
Poverty status6
At or above poverty threshold 7,48012
Below poverty threshold 1,31155
1"Other race, non-Hispanic" includes children who were multiracial and not of Hispanic ethnicity, or who were American Indian or Alaska Native, or were not Hispanic, White, Black, Asian, or Pacific Islander.

2Complete descriptions of the categories for parentsí language are as follows: (1) "Both/only parent(s) learned English as child(ren) or currently speak(s) English in the home," (2) "One of two parents learned English as a child or currently speaks English in the home," and (3) "No parent learned English as a child and both/only parent(s) currently speak(s) a non-English language in the home."

3Children without mothers living in the household are not included in estimates related to motherís education, enrollment, employment status, or work shift.

4Work shifts were collapsed into two categories: regular and variable work shifts. A regular work shift is one with set hours. A variable shift is one that changes from days to evenings or nights regardless of whether the hours are set by the employer or the employee.

5Parents or guardians respond "yes" or "no" to the question: "Are there any conditions in your neighborhood that make you worried about the health or safety of ((CHILD)/any of the children) in your household?"

6Children are considered poor if they were living in households with incomes below the poverty threshold, which is a dollar amount determined by the federal government to meet the householdís needs, given its size and composition.

NOTE: Estimates include children from birth through 5 years of age, and not yet in kindergarten, who are in at least one weekly nonparental care arrangement with fees. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Program Participation Survey of the National Household Education Surveys Program (ECPP-NHES:2005).

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