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Initial Results From the 2005 NHES Early Childhood Program Participation Survey

NCES 2006-075
May 2006

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Table 6. Mean length of time (in months) that children from birth through age 5 and not yet in kindergarten have been in current care, by arrangement and child and family characteristics: 2005
Characteristic Number of children
Mean number of months spent in
different types of nonparental care arrangement1
Relative Nonrelative Center-based2
Total 12,3447.13.68.4
Childís age
Less than 1 year 1,4712.31.41.1
1-2 years 4,2626.44.05.4
3-5 years 6,6118.73.812.0
Childís sex
Male 6,4117.23.68.7
Female 5,9347.13.68.1
Childís race/ethnicity
White, non-Hispanic 7,0886.74.48.6
Black, non-Hispanic 2,0397.31.89.4
Hispanic 2,0967.93.06.3
Asian or Pacific Islander,
Other race, non-Hispanic37739.72.89.1
Family type
Two parents 9,1686.33.98.3
One parent 2,9619.42.88.6
Nonparent guardian(s) 21610.41.410.8
Parentsí language spoken most at home4
Both/only parent(s) speak(s) English 11,0907.33.78.6
One of two parents speaks English 2104.51.17.1
No parent speaks English 1,0446.32.96.8
Motherís level of education5
Less than a high school 73082.46.4
High school/GED 3,1048.83.27.9
Vocational/technical or some college 3,5047.83.47.8
Bachelorís degree 2,8455.53.79.8
Graduate or professional education
  or degree
Motherís school enrollment status5
Enrolled 1,8946.82.59.4
Not enrolled 10,1947.23.88.2
Motherís employment status5
35 or more hours per week 6,0787.64.68.8
Less than 35 hours per week 2,9788.53.77.4
Looking for work 6529.62.96.5
Not in the labor force 2,3803.41.29
Motherís work shift5, 6
Regular shift 7,9857.74.48.6
Variable shift 1,0719.33.36.5
Neighborhood conditions7
Concern regarding neighborhood
  health and safety conditions
No concern regarding neighborhood
  health and safety conditions
Household income
$25,000 or less 3,0088.22.47.4
$25,001 to $50,000 2,7678.42.97.6
$50,001 to $75,000 2,6356.64.38.7
$75,001 to $100,000 1,7756.04.98.9
$100,001 or more 2,1595.64.310.1
Poverty status8
At or above poverty threshold 10,0177.03.98.7
Below poverty threshold 2,3287.92.27.3
1Estimates indicate the mean number of months in care for a given type of care, per child. For children with more than one arrangement of a given type, the arrangement in which the child spent the greatest number of months was used.

2Center-based arrangements include day care centers, Head Start programs, preschools, prekindergartens, and other early childhood programs.

3"Other race, non-Hispanic" includes children who were multiracial and not of Hispanic ethnicity, or who were American Indian or Alaska Native, or were not Hispanic, White, Black, Asian, or Pacific Islander.

4Complete descriptions of the categories for parentsí language are as follows: (1) "Both/only parent(s) learned English as child(ren) or currently speak(s) English in the home," (2) "One of two parents learned English as a child or currently speaks English in the home," and (3) "No parent learned English as a child and both/only parent(s) currently speak(s) a non-English language in the home."

5Children without mothers living in the household are not included in estimates related to motherís education, enrollment, employment status, or work shift.

6Work shifts were collapsed into two categories: regular and variable work shifts. A regular work shift is one with set hours. A variable shift is one that changes from days to evenings or nights regardless of whether the hours are set by the employer or the employee.

7Parents or guardians respond "yes" or "no" to the question: "Are there any conditions in your neighborhood that make you worried about the health or safety of ((CHILD)/any of the children) in your household?"

8Children are considered poor if they were living in households with incomes below the poverty threshold, which is a dollar amount determined by the federal government to meet the householdís needs, given its size and composition.

NOTE: Estimates include children from birth through 5 years of age, and not yet in kindergarten with at least one weekly nonparental care arrangement. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Program Participation Survey of the National Household Education Surveys Program (ECPP-NHES:2005).

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