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Initial Results From the 2005 NHES Early Childhood Program Participation Survey

NCES 2006-075
May 2006

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Table 5. Mean number of hours per week of care for children from birth through age 5 and not yet in kindergarten, by arrangement and child and family characteristics: 2005
Characteristic Number of children
At least one weekly nonparental care arrangement1 Hours spent per week in different types of nonparental care arrangement2
Relative Nonrelative Center-based3
  Total 12,34429.324.326.724.8
Child’s age
Less than 1 year 1,47131.127.227.932.5
1-2 years 4,26230.524.328.129.5
3-5 years 6,61128.123.224.522.5
Child’s sex
Male 6,41128.723.226.324.4
Female 5,93430.025.427.225.1
Child’s race/ethnicity
White, non-Hispanic 7,08827.221.725.922.2
Black, non-Hispanic 2,03935.827.932.432.5
Hispanic 2,09628.826.725.524.6
Asian or Pacific Islander, non-Hispanic 34832.628.437.226.8
Other race, non-Hispanic477331.725.626.926.3
Family type
Two parents 9,16827.121.626.623.1
One parent 2,96135.128.726.729.7
Nonparent guardian(s) 21643.442.536.730.3
Parents’ language spoken most at home5
Both/only parent(s) speak(s) English 11,09029.624.026.924.8
One of two parents speaks English 21026.826.323.325.4
No parent speaks English 1,04427.126.724.823.9
Mother’s level of education6
Less than a high school 73027.122.927.325.1
High school/GED 3,10429.527.226.224.2
Vocational/technical or some college 3,50429.823.329.525.3
Bachelor’s degree 2,8452822.325.523.8
Graduate or professional education
  or degree
Mother’s school enrollment status6
Enrolled 1,89432.124.025.929.3
Not enrolled 10,19428.724.327.023.8
Mother’s employment status6
35 or more hours per week 6,07837.228.733.032.0
Less than 35 hours per week 2,97822.918.218.119.7
Looking for work 65228.124.920.228.7
Not in the labor force 2,38017.119.214.815.0
Mother’s work shift6, 7
Regular shift 7,98533.424.829.329.3
Variable shift 1,07125.725.220.917.5
Neighborhood conditions8
Concern regarding neighborhood
  health and safety conditions
No concern regarding neighborhood
  health and safety conditions
Household income
$25,000 or less 3,00831.427.425.427.1
$25,001 to $50,000 2,76729.324.626.225.0
$50,001 to $75,000 2,63528.123.027.823.3
$75,001 to $100,000 1,77529.421.031.024.9
$100,001 or more 2,15927.921.023.623.1
Poverty status9
At or above poverty threshold 10,01729.123.827.124.3
Below poverty threshold 2,32830.425.924.126.9
1Estimates indicate hours per week, per child, across all weekly arrangements of all types. For children with more than one arrangement, the hours for each weekly arrangement are summed to calculate the total amount of time in child care per week.

2Estimates indicate hours per week for care of a given type, per child. For children with more than one arrangement of a given type, the hours for each arrangement of that type are summed to calculate the total amount of time in care per week.

3Center-based arrangements include day care centers, Head Start programs, preschools, prekindergartens, and other early childhood programs.

4“Other race, non-Hispanic” includes children who were multiracial and not of Hispanic ethnicity, or who were American Indian or Alaska Native, or were not Hispanic, White, Black, Asian, or Pacific Islander.

5Complete descriptions of the categories for parents’ language are as follows: (1) “Both/only parent(s) learned English as child(ren) or currently speak(s) English in the home,” (2) “One of two parents learned English as a child or currently speaks English in the home,” and (3) “No parent learned English as a child and both/only parent(s) currently speak(s) a non-English language in the home.”

6Children without mothers living in the household are not included in estimates related to mother’s education, enrollment, employment status, or work shift.

7Work shifts were collapsed into two categories: regular and variable work shifts. A regular work shift is one with set hours. A variable shift is one that changes from days to evenings or nights regardless of whether the hours are set by the employer or the employee.

8Parents or guardians respond “yes” or “no” to the question: “Are there any conditions in your neighborhood that make you worried about the health or safety of ((CHILD)/any of the children) in your household?”

9Children are considered poor if they were living in households with incomes below the poverty threshold, which is a dollar amount determined by the federal government to meet the household’s needs, given its size and composition.

NOTE: Estimates include children from birth through 5 years of age, and not yet in kindergarten with at least one weekly nonparental care arrangement. Children may have multiple arrangements. The sum of hours in nonparental care arrangements is taken for each child. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Program Participation Survey of the National Household Education Surveys Program (ECPP-NHES:2005).

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